Aia he kano ma ka papa

ʻO ka lāʻau lapaʻau he lāʻau immunobiological lāʻau i loaʻa i nā pathogens nāwaliwali a i ʻole i hoʻohana ʻia, a i kekahi mau manawa ko lākou mau analogues synthetic. Hāʻawi ia mau lāʻau i ka hoʻomohala ʻana o ka pale ʻana i kahi antigen kikoʻī. ʻO ka hoʻokomo ʻana o kahi kano i loko o ke kino ke kumu o ka pane kūlohelohe e like me ka pane i ka hana a ka pathogen ponoʻī - hana ʻia nā antibodies. I ka manawa like, hāʻawi ʻia i ka nāwaliwali o ke kino pathogenic, he liʻiliʻi ka hiki ke maʻi. I kēia mau lā, hoʻohana ka lāʻau lapaʻau i nā ʻano lāʻau lapaʻau no ka lāʻau lapaʻau, ʻokoʻa i ke ʻano o ka hana a me ke ʻano o ka hoʻokuʻu.

He aha nā ʻano o nā lāʻau lapaʻau?

I ka immunology hou no ka vaccination, hoʻohana ʻia kekahi mau ʻano lāʻau lapaʻau:

  • live attenuated - loaʻa kahi mea ola akā hoʻonāwaliwali ʻia o ka microorganism - ke kumu kumu o ka maʻi;
  • inactivated - e pili ana i nā mea hoʻomaʻi make (inactivated) a me nā microbes;
  • recombinant, subunit, polysaccharide, conjugated - loaʻa i kahi ʻāpana wale nō o ka microorganism, no ka laʻana, kona pūpū, ke kō a me ka protein;
  • anatoxin - ma muli o nā toxins i hana ʻia e ka microorganism pathogenic;
  • mRNA - hoʻohana i ka RNA, ka mea "hāʻawi" i nā keʻena o ke kino kanaka "aʻo" pehea e hana ai i nā antibodies i kahi pathogen;
  • me ka viral vector - loaʻa i kahi virus neutralized i hoʻohana ʻia ma ke ʻano he "vector" kahi e loaʻa ai i ke kino ka ʻike e pono ai e hoʻomohala i ka pale ʻana iā ia iho i kahi pathogen kikoʻī.

ʻO ke ʻano maʻamau o ka lāʻau lapaʻau ʻo ia ka injectable solution (pana). Loaʻa nō hoʻi nā ʻōpala ihu no ka hoʻopaʻa ʻana. Hāʻawi ʻia kekahi mau lāʻau lapaʻau ma ke ʻano scarification, ʻo ia hoʻi, ma ka ʻili, ʻoiai e hana ʻia kahi ʻōpala liʻiliʻi ma ka ʻili, kahi e kulu ʻia ai ke kano. Aia kekahi ʻano waha o ka hoʻokuʻu ʻana - hoʻohana ʻia ka lāʻau lapaʻau ma o ka lua waha, no ka laʻana, ke hoʻopaʻa ʻia i ka polio. A inā ma mua ke ʻano o ka hoʻonā ʻana o ka waha waha, i kēia manawa hiki iā ʻoe ke lohe nui e pili ana i ka hoʻomākaukau ʻana i ka lāʻau lapaʻau ma ke ʻano o nā papa. Aia maoli anei lākou?

ʻO ke kano ma nā papa: ka moʻolelo a i ʻole ka ʻoiaʻiʻo?

A hiki i kēia manawa, ʻaʻole i hana ʻia nā lāʻau lapaʻau ma nā papa. Akā i kekahi mau makahiki i hala aku nei, ua hana nā kānaka ʻepekema Pelekania ma ke Kulanui ʻo Cardiff i kahi lāʻau non-biological hiki ke lawe waha ʻia no ka influenza vaccination. I ka honua ʻepekema, kapa ʻia kēia hanana he holomua.

Ua hoʻokumu ʻia kēia lāʻau lapaʻau ma luna o nā protein artificial e hoʻohālike i nā peptides o nā maʻi maʻi maoli. ʻAʻole like me nā peptides biological, ʻaʻole pili nā mea synthetic i ka ʻōnaehana digestive. ʻO kēia ʻoiaʻiʻo ka mea i hiki ke loaʻa kahi kano i loko o nā papa. Ua hōʻoia mua ka lāʻau lapaʻau hou i kona pono. Wahi a ka ʻikepili i paʻi ʻia ma ka puke ʻepekema ʻo The Journal of Clinical Investigation, ʻo ka hoʻohana ʻana i ia mea hana e hoʻoulu ai i ka pane immune ikaika. Ua hōʻoia ʻia ka maikaʻi o ka lāʻau i ka wā o ka hoʻāʻo ʻana i nā ʻiole. Wahi a nā mea noiʻi, hiki ke manaʻo ʻia kahi hopena like i ke kino o ke kanaka. Eia naʻe, ua ʻae ka poʻe ʻepekema i kēia manawa ke kamaʻilio wale nei mākou e pili ana i ka lāʻau lapaʻau kūʻē i ka maʻi influenza. Pono ka manawa hou no ka hoʻomohala ʻana a me ke aʻo ʻana i nā kano i loko o nā papa no nā maʻi ʻē aʻe. ʻAʻole i emi iki nā hoʻokolohua o ka ʻoihana biotechnology ʻAmelika ʻo Vaxart, Inc i ke kahua o nā lāʻau lapaʻau recombinant. Ke hana nei ka ʻoihana i kēia lā ma nā ʻaoʻao he nui i ka manawa hoʻokahi, e hāʻawi ana i ka hiki ke hoʻopaʻa ʻia me nā papa no nā noroviruses, ka maʻi maʻi kau, ka papillomavirus kanaka. Pono e hoʻopili ʻia nā ʻano hana kano o Vaxart, Inc. Mālama kēia uhi i nā papa mai ka waikawa i loko o ka ʻōpū, e ʻae iā lākou e komo i loko o ka ʻōpū liʻiliʻi, kahi e loaʻa ai ka pane kūlohelohe i ke komo ʻana o ka maʻi i loko o ke kino. No ka lawe ʻana i ka antigen e hoʻoulu ai i kahi hopena pale, hoʻohana ka hui i ka type 5 adenovirus. Hāʻawi ʻo ia iā ia i nā cell epithelial. ʻO nā hoʻokolohua lapaʻau, ʻo ka lua o ka manawa i pau i ka makahiki 2018, ua hōʻike ʻia ʻo ka papa lāʻau lapaʻau mai Vaxart, Inc e hōʻemi i nā hōʻike o ka maʻi e 39%. I ka hoʻohālikelike ʻana, hāʻawi ka ʻano injectable i kahi hopena o 27% wale nō.

Pehea ka maikaʻi o ka loaʻa ʻana o kahi kano ma nā papa?

Pono nā lāʻau lapaʻau kuʻuna i hoʻohana ʻia i ka immunology, me nā lāʻau waha e kūʻē i ka poliomyelitis. ʻO ka mea kūikawā, pono e mālama ʻia nā lāʻau lapaʻau o kēia pūʻulu a lawe ʻia i loko o nā friji a i ʻole freezer, kahi e hana ai i kekahi mau pilikia. ʻAʻole pono nā papa i kahi ʻano wela kūikawā, e hoʻomaʻamaʻa nui i kāna hoʻohana. Eia kekahi, ʻo kahi ala no ka hoʻopaʻa ʻana ma ke ʻano papa:

  • ka loaʻa ʻole o ka ʻeha i loaʻa i ka wā o ka hoʻopaʻa ʻana;
  • ka ho'ēmiʻana i ka helu o nā maʻi maʻi i ka paneʻana i ka protein i loko o nā hāʻina;
  • hoʻonui o ka pūʻulu makahiki o nā maʻi i hoʻopaʻa ʻia.

Kano COVID-19 ma nā papa: hiki anei?

E pili ana i ka maʻi maʻi COVID-19, ke hana ikaika nei nā mea noiʻi a puni ka honua e hōʻoia i hiki i nā poʻe ke hoʻohana i nā ʻano o ka pale ʻana ʻaʻole wale no nā injections intramuscular, akā i nā ʻano ʻē aʻe. ʻAʻohe kano kano i loaʻa i ka lehulehu no COVID-19, akā ke hoʻomaka nei ka hana ma kekahi mau ʻāina e hoʻāʻo i kahi kano ʻokoʻa.

Ke hoʻāʻo nei nā loea Lūkini i ka maʻi Sputnik V ma ke ʻano o ka nasal spray. Wahi a nā wānana mua, e komo nā mea manawaleʻa 500 i ka hoʻāʻo ʻana i ka pono o ka lāʻau lapaʻau i kēia ʻano hana. Hoʻolālā ʻia ka hoʻāʻo e hana ʻia a hiki i Dekemaba 31, 2023 ma ka Eco-Safety Research Center (St. Petersburg). Eia kekahi, ke hana nei nā loea mai ka Central Research Institute o ka Ministry of Defense o ka Russian Federation i ka hana ʻana i kahi kano anti-covid mucosal ma ke ʻano o nā marshmallows a me nā papa chewable.

Ke hana pū nei nā ʻepekema Australia ma kēia ʻaoʻao. Ua hoʻomaka ka Nucleus Network i nā hoʻokolohua lapaʻau o ka nasal spray vaccine e kūʻē i ka maʻi COVID-19, a ʻo Vaxxas, kahi hui biotech, ua hoʻomohala i kahi microneedle patch i uhi ʻia me kahi kano COVID-19. A e like me ka hōʻike mua ʻana o nā ʻiole, ʻoi aku ka maikaʻi o kēia ʻano o ka hoʻomaʻamaʻa ʻana ma mua o ka injection kuʻuna - i nā ʻiole, ua hoʻomaka wikiwiki ka pane ʻana o ka immune. Ua hana pū nā ʻepekema Estonian i kahi spray e pale ai i ka maʻi coronavirus. ʻAʻole haʻalele ka poʻe ʻepekema Ukrainian ma hope o kā lākou mau hoa. I ka makahiki i hala aku nei, ua loaʻa i ka Lviv Institute of Cell Biology o ka National Academy of Science of Ukraine kahi haʻawina e hoʻomohala i kahi kano kūʻē iā COVID-19. I kēia lā, ua kokoke pau ka papahana, ma Polani, ke hana ʻia nei nā haʻawina ma nā ʻiole laboratory. Ua ʻōlelo ka poʻe hoʻomohala ua "hana i nā ʻāpana like ʻole o ka maʻi maʻi me ka ʻole o ka nucleic acid." Inā hōʻoia ka hopena, e hoʻohana nui ʻia ka lāʻau lapaʻau, e hana ʻia ma ke ʻano o ka spray, papa a lāʻau lapaʻau paha. Akā naʻe, ua lilo ka poʻe ʻepekema ʻIseraʻela i mea kūleʻa loa i ka hoʻomohala ʻana i ka hoʻomākaukau ʻana i ka papa no ka hoʻopaʻa ʻana i ka coronavirus. Ua hoʻomaka ka hui lāʻau lapaʻau ʻo Oramed Pharmaceutical i ka hoʻāʻo ʻana i ka hoʻāʻo ʻana o kahi kano waha e kūʻē iā COVID-19. Wahi a nā mea hoʻomohala, inā hōʻoia ʻia ka hopena o ka lāʻau lapaʻau, e kōkua ka lāʻau lapaʻau i ka wikiwiki o ka wikiwiki o ka hoʻopaʻa ʻana. ʻO kekahi mea koʻikoʻi o nā papa anti-covid ʻaʻole lākou e koi i ka mālama ʻana i nā haʻahaʻa haʻahaʻa, ʻo ia ka mea i koi ʻia no kahi kano kano.
  1. Ka Journal of Clinical Investigation. – Hoʻohālike ka peptide no ka lāʻau lapaʻau maʻi maʻi me ka hoʻohana ʻana i nā kemika hui ʻole.
  2. Nūhou BBC. – Nā hana mua i hana ʻia no nā lāʻau lapaʻau.
  3. 360wiki.ru. – Vaxart – Vale Formoso a me Aldeia do Souto Wikipedia.
  4. RBC. - "Sputnik V" i ke ʻano o ka nasal spray i ʻae ʻia e hoʻāʻo ʻia ma nā mea manawaleʻa.
  5. EurekAlert!. - Hōʻike ka hoʻopaʻa ʻana o ka lāʻau lapaʻau COVID-19 me ke kui.
  6. ʻepekema. – Ka hoʻoheheʻe ʻana i ka ʻāpana wai o nā perovskites lead halide a me nā aniani hoʻolālā metala-organic.
  7. Tervis. – Eesti teadlaste loodud koroonavastane ninasprei aitab ka delta tüve vastu.
  8. Radio Liberty. - Ke hoʻāʻo ʻia nei ka huakaʻi Ukrainian COVID i nā ʻiole ma Polani.
  9. PR Newswire. - Hoʻolaha ʻo Oramed i ka Oravax's Oral COVID-19 Vaccine Ua Loaʻa i ka ʻApelika Hema e hoʻomaka i ka hoʻāʻo ʻana i ka Phase 1.