Nā mea huna o ka hana ʻana i nā lāʻau lapaʻau: hōʻike mākou i ka hope o nā hiʻohiʻona

Ua ʻōlelo ʻia nā huahana lāʻau (nā hoʻomākaukau, nā lāʻau lapaʻau, nā huaora, nā lāʻau lapaʻau) no ka ʻike ʻike wale nō. ʻAʻole mākou e paipai i ka hoʻohana ʻana iā lākou me ka ʻole o ke kauka. Heluhelu ʻia: " No ke aha ʻaʻole hiki iā ʻoe ke lawe i nā lāʻau me ka ʻole o ke kauka?". ʻO ka mōʻaukala o ka hana ʻana i ka lāʻau lapaʻau he mau millennia. ʻO ka haʻi mua ʻana iā lākou e nā mea kākau moʻolelo a me nā archaeologists mai ka makahiki 1550 BC. ʻAʻole hiki ke hoʻohālikelike ʻia nā lāʻau lapaʻau hou me lākou, no ka mea ʻaʻole i ʻoi aku ka maikaʻi a me ka hoʻohui ʻana i hōʻoia ʻia, akā ua hana ʻia ma lalo o nā kūlana sterile. Ke ulu wikiwiki nei ka ʻoihana lāʻau lapaʻau a puni ka honua, nā hale hana a me nā hale hana no ka hana ʻana i nā lāʻau lapaʻau e hoʻonui ana i ko lākou ākea i loaʻa i kēlā me kēia mea maʻi ka manawa e hoʻōla mai ka maʻi, e hōʻemi i kāna mau hōʻailona a hoʻomaikaʻi i ka maikaʻi o ke ola.

ʻAʻole kahi ʻoihana huna ka hana lāʻau lapaʻau, akā ʻike liʻiliʻi e pili ana i nā nuances āpau o nā kaʻina hana no ka hana ʻana i nā papa, syrups, nā hopena i nā ampoules.

Loaʻa i kēlā me kēia hui kona ʻano hana ponoʻī

A he ʻoiaʻiʻo kēia. ʻO kēlā me kēia mea hana ke koho kūʻokoʻa i ke ʻano o nā mea hana, hoʻonohonoho i ke kaʻina hana, akā i ka hopena, nā mea hoʻohana hope: nā mea kūʻai aku o nā lāʻau lapaʻau, nā mākeke lāʻau, nā mea maʻi - pono e loaʻa i kahi lāʻau kiʻekiʻe. No ka hana ʻana i ke ʻano like o ka dosage form, akā me kahi mea ʻē aʻe, hoʻohana pinepine ʻia nā mea hana like.

Hana ʻia ke kaʻina hana holoʻokoʻa e like me nā pae ʻenehana i hoʻokumu ʻia e ka Industrial Regulations for production. Ma hope o ka hoʻokuʻu ʻana o, no ka laʻana, nā papa mai cough, hoʻomaʻemaʻe pono ʻia nā mea hana a pau, nānā ʻia inā he koena o nā mea hana a me nā mea kōkua. Ma hope wale nō hiki iā ʻoe ke hoʻomaka e hana i nā papa me kahi hopena therapeutic ʻē aʻe.

I nā makahiki i hala iho nei, ua hana nui ka hana lāʻau lapaʻau i mua. Ua hoʻokō ka nui o nā hui i ka automation piha o nā kaʻina hana a pau, no laila no ka hana ʻana, pono ka mea hoʻohana e kaomi i kekahi mau pihi - a ma ka hopena e loaʻa iā ia kahi lāʻau me ka ʻole o nā hewa a me nā deviations mai ka haku mele i haʻi ʻia. No ka laʻana, hoʻohana ka hui lāʻau lapaʻau ʻo Ukrainian ʻo Farmak i nā lako hōʻailona Siemens. ʻO ia ʻōnaehana hiki iā ʻoe ke hele maʻalahi i ke kaulahao hana holoʻokoʻa: mai ka hana ʻana i kahi palapala leka uila a hiki i ka hoʻopili ʻana o ka lāʻau. Ke hoʻohana nei i kahi noi kūikawā, nānā wale ka mea hoʻohana:

  • inā lawa nā mea maka;
  • inā e mālama ʻia nā ʻāpana āpau;
  • inā paha e hoʻokō ka microclimate o ka lumi i nā pae i koi ʻia no ka hana ʻana i nā mea hoʻomākaukau.

Ma hope o kēlā, hoʻomaka ke kaʻina hana, a hoʻokō kūʻokoʻa ka ʻōnaehana ʻakomi i kona mau pae āpau. ʻO ka pōmaikaʻi nui o ia digitalization ʻo ka nele o ka hoʻopili ʻana i nā mea maka no ka hana ʻana i nā ʻano dosage me kahi kanaka. ʻO kēia ka mea e hōʻoiaʻiʻo ai i kā lākou sterility kiʻekiʻe.

He aha nā lāʻau i hana ʻia me

ʻO ka ʻike ʻana i ka mea i hoʻohana ʻia no ka hana ʻana i nā lāʻau lapaʻau ʻoi aku ka nui a me ka hoihoi ma mua o ke kaʻina hana. Aia kekahi poʻe ʻaʻole i lawe i nā pila, nā syrups, nā ʻaila a me nā ʻano ʻē aʻe o ka hoʻokuʻu ʻana i ka lāʻau ma muli o ka "chemistry" i loko o ka haku mele. Akā e hoʻomaopopo ʻia ʻaʻole nā ​​​​mea maka a pau he "kemika", a ʻo nā mea hana synthetic i nā hihia he nui wale nō ke ola mai ka maʻi.

ʻOi aku ka ʻokoʻa o ka waihona maka, ma ke kumu o ka hana ʻana i nā lāʻau lapaʻau, ʻoi aku ka ʻokoʻa i kēia mau lā a aia kekahi mau pūʻulu.

  1. ʻO nā mea maka o ka mea kanu kumu ma ko lākou ʻano maʻemaʻe, a me nā huahana o kā lākou hana ʻana. Nui nā hoʻomākaukau i nā mea kanu, nā huaʻai, nā ʻōnaehana kumu o kekahi mau mea kanu, nā ʻanoʻano, nā aila pono, nā wai, nā extracts.No ka laʻana, he lāʻau lapaʻau wale nō ka ʻaila comfrey, aia nā mea kanu lāʻau.
  2. Nā huahana o nā holoholona: nā ʻiʻo ʻiʻo, nā wai olaola, nā ʻili, nā huna, nā huahana ʻōpala. Ka laʻana: ʻo ka lāʻau lapaʻau kaulana ʻo Pancreatin, i hana ʻia ma ke kumu o nā enzymes o ka pancreas o nā pipi.
  3. ʻO nā minela inorganic: nā minelala, nā huahana o ka ʻāpana metallurgical ma hope o ka hana ʻana. Ammonia (ammonia solution) ʻike maopopo nā mea a pau. A ʻaʻole ʻo ia wale nō ka ʻelele o kēia hui.
  4. Nā mōʻalihaʻi kino. He lāʻau lapaʻau kaulana a hoʻohana mau ʻia ka lanahu hoʻōla no kēia hui.
  5. ʻO nā pūhui kino i hana ʻia e nā ʻoihana kemika ma kahi ʻano nui a ʻano like ʻole.

Excipients - no ke aha lākou e pono ai, nā mea i hoʻohana ʻia

I ka hana ʻana i nā ʻano dosage, uku ʻia ka nānā kūikawā ʻaʻole wale i nā mea hana, akā pū kekahi i nā mea kōkua. ʻO nā waiwai a me ke ola o ka huahana e hilinaʻi iā lākou, akā ʻo ka mea nui loa, hiki i nā additives iā lākou iho ke hoʻopili i ka hopena ma hope o ka lawe ʻana i nā papa, syrup a me nā ʻano hana ʻē aʻe.

He ākea ka papa inoa o nā mea kōkua. A ʻo ka hoʻomohala wikiwiki ʻana o ka lāʻau lapaʻau, wānana ka ʻoihana kemika i ka hoʻonui ʻana i ka laulā o ia mau lāʻau lapaʻau e hiki ai ke hoʻololi i nā hiki ke hoʻohana i nā hoʻomohala pharmacological.

I kēia lā, ʻo nā mea kōkua kūpono a hoʻohana pinepine ʻia:

  • sodium citrate - ma kahi o ka hoʻohui ʻia i nā lāʻau lapaʻau koke, ʻo ia a hoʻohaʻahaʻa. ke kiʻekiʻe o ka acidity, no laila e pili ana i nā lāʻau lapaʻau no ka puʻuwai a me nā hangovers;
  • ʻakika citric - hoʻohana ʻia ma ke ʻano he mea hoʻopaʻa. Loaʻa iā ia nā waiwai antiseptic, hoʻemi i ka sweating;
  • glycerin ʻo ia ke kumu o nā ʻano wai a me nā ʻano ʻano palupalu. Hoʻohana ʻia ia e pale i ka fermentation o nā wai. Ma muli o ka glycerin ʻaʻole maloʻo ka ʻaila a i ʻole ka ʻaila;
  • talc - ua hoʻomaʻemaʻe maikaʻi ʻia, hoʻomaloʻo ʻia a hoʻomaʻemaʻe ʻia kēlā mea hoʻohana;
  • gelatin - me ka ʻole o ia, ʻaʻole e hana ʻia ka hapa nui o nā capsules a i ʻole nā ​​papa me nā pūpū gelatin. Ma muli o ka nele o ka ʻala a me ka ʻono, hiki iā ʻoe ke hoʻokaʻawale i ka hopena maikaʻi ʻole o kekahi mau lāʻau lapaʻau. E noʻonoʻo wale i ka nui o nā maʻi e hōʻole i ka ʻaila iʻa maikaʻi me ka ʻole o ka pūpū capsule;
  • ʻO ka waika boric he mea hoʻopaʻa a he antiseptic;
  • methylparaben - i hoʻohui ʻia i nā lāʻau lapaʻau e hoʻonui ai i ko lākou ola ʻana, a no ka mea e pale ana i ka ulu ʻana o nā hua bacteria gram-positive a me gram-negative;
  • potassium sorbate - ua manaʻo ʻia kekahi o nā mea mālama palekana. I kēia lā, hoʻohana ʻia ia ma ka honua holoʻokoʻa, me Ukraine, Russia;
  • butanol - antiseptic and solvent;
  • ethyl acetate - hana ma ke ʻano he reagent i ka hana ʻana i nā lāʻau lapaʻau he nui, no ka laʻana, hydrocortisone a i ʻole rifampicin.

ʻO ke ʻano hana ke kumu no ka hana ʻana i nā lāʻau lapaʻau. ke kaua ma ke ala i ka hana ʻana i ka lāʻau lapaʻau kūpono a kiʻekiʻe. ʻO ia ke kumu, ma mua o ka hana ʻana, pono e koho ʻia ke ʻano dosage. Ma kēia kaʻina hana, ʻike ʻia ka hiki ke komo i ka absorption o ka mea hana, kona kūpaʻa, ka maʻalahi o ka hoʻokele ʻana i ka lāʻau lapaʻau, a me ka hoʻokō ʻana i ka GMP - Rules for Organization and Quality Control. ʻO ia ka mea koʻikoʻi hope loa, no laila pono ka ʻoihana hana e hoʻokō me ka maʻemaʻe, ka maʻemaʻe, a me ka mana hana. No ka laʻana, ʻaʻohe lāʻau ma ka ʻāina o ka hale hana lāʻau ʻo Darnitsa i ʻole lākou e hoʻouka i nā kānana hoʻomaʻemaʻe.

ʻO ia mau hui pū wale nō e hiki ai ke hana i nā papa a i ʻole nā ​​​​mea hoʻonā, nā ʻaila, nā capsules a me nā ʻano hana ʻē aʻe e hoʻihoʻi i ko mākou olakino.

ʻenehana hana papa papa

ʻO ke ʻano papa ke ʻano kaulana loa o nā lāʻau lapaʻau. He maʻalahi ka lawe ʻana i nā papa, hiki ke lawe ʻia e nā keiki a me nā pākeke. Hana ʻia kēlā ʻano mea hoʻohana me ka hoʻohana ʻana i kekahi o nā ʻenehana ʻekolu:

  • kaomi pololei;
  • maloʻo granulation;
  • pulu pulu.

Ma waho o ke ʻano o ka ʻenehana, hoʻomaka ke kaʻina hana papa me ke kaupaona ʻana o nā mea maka i loko o nā puʻupuʻu aspirating. A laila ua hui pono ʻia nā ʻāpana āpau me nā hui hui kūikawā. ʻO kēia ka pae ʻo ia kekahi o nā mea nui, no ka mea pono e puʻunaue like ʻia nā ʻāpana ma luna o ka nui, ʻaʻole maʻalahi ma muli o ka hoʻopuehu like ʻole, ka haʻahaʻa, a me ka nui.

Ma hope o ka hui ʻana i nā ʻāpana o nā papa e hiki mai ana, hele ka nuipa i ka pae hope o ka hana. Ma muli o ka ʻenehana i koho ʻia, ʻokoʻa paha ke kaʻina hana. Hōʻike ʻia ke kaomi pololei ʻana e ka manawa pōkole pōkole loa, ʻo ia kona ʻoi aku ma mua o ka granulation. Akā i ka manawa like, pili wale ke ala no kēlā mau ʻāpana nona nā waiwai physicochemical i aneane like. He mea paʻakikī ka hoʻohui ʻana i nā mea maka me nā kahe like ʻole ma ke kaomi pololei ʻana i hoʻokahi papa.

Manaʻo ʻia ʻo Wet granulation ke koho maikaʻi loa no ka hana papa. Aia kēia ʻenehana i kekahi mau ʻanuʻu:

  1. Grinding - ke hana ʻia nei ke kaʻina hana me ka wili pōpō.
  2. Moisturizing, i loko o nā mea hoʻopaʻa ʻia he wai, kōpaʻa kōpaʻa, starch paste, gelatin.
  3. ʻOka ʻana i ka nui o ka hopena ma kahi kānana. No kēia, hoʻohana ʻia nā mea granulator kūikawā.
  4. ʻO ka maloʻo a me ka hana ʻana o nā granules i loaʻa - ma nā keʻena maloʻo a i ʻole i ka lewa ākea.
  5. Hoʻopili i nā papa.

ʻOkoʻa ka granulation maloʻo mai ka granulation pulu no ka mea ʻaʻohe pae hoʻomaʻemaʻe, no ka mea aia nā ʻāpana e decompose ma lalo o ka mana o wai. I kēia lā, hoʻohana ʻia nā ʻenehana ʻekolu i ka hana ʻana, akā ua hoʻomohala ʻia nā mīkini hou no ka hana ʻana i nā papa. No ka laʻana, ke hana nei ka hui Linguagen e hōʻoia i ka ʻono ʻawaʻawa o nā mea hana ʻaʻole i uhi wale ʻia e nā mea hoʻohui kōkua, akā ua paʻa ʻia nā mea loaʻa e ʻike nei.

ʻO nā hiʻohiʻona o ka hana ʻana i nā ʻano hoʻoheheʻe palupalu

ʻO ka ʻaila, nā ʻaila, nā liniment, nā suppositories he ʻano mea nui e pili ana inā pono ʻoe e loaʻa i ka mālama kūloko. Ua hoʻohana ʻia ia no nā makahiki he mau makahiki, akā i ka makahiki i hala wale nō ka hana ʻana o nā lāʻau lapaʻau ma ke ʻano palupalu i lilo i ʻenehana kiʻekiʻe, sterile.

Hoʻopili ʻia ka hana ʻana i nā mea poni, ʻaila, suppositories me ka piʻi nui ʻana o ka microbial contamination, no laila e mālama pono ʻia nā pae āpau, a ua sterilized a hoʻomaʻemaʻe ʻia ka hale.

ʻO kekahi hiʻohiʻona koʻikoʻi o nā ʻano mea hoʻoheheʻe palupalu ʻo ia nā waiwai rheological, no ka mea, pono lākou e ʻoki maʻalahi i waho o ka paipu, e laha maikaʻi ma ka ʻili a i ʻole ka mucous membrane, e komo hohonu, a hiki i ke koko a me ka lymph. ʻO ka hoʻohui ʻana i nā ʻāpana ʻokoʻa i ka hoʻolālā a me nā waiwai mechanical he hana lāʻau lapaʻau maoli.

ʻO ke kaʻina hana o ka hana ʻana i nā ʻōpala palupalu i kēia mau ʻanuʻu:

  1. Ka hoʻomākaukau ʻana i nā mea maka a me ke koho ʻana o ke kumu.
  2. Hoʻokomo ʻia ka mea hana i loko o ka waihona.
  3. Homogenization.
  4. Hoʻohālikelike.
  5. Hoʻopili a mālama.

Ka hana ʻana i nā mea hoʻonā no nā injections i ka hale hana

Nā koi kūikawā no ka hana ʻana i nā injectables, pili nui i ka sterility a me ka mālama ʻana i nā waiwai o mea hana. No kēia kumu, i ka hana ʻana i ka ʻeke, nā ampoules aniani a i ʻole nā ​​kīʻaha, nā pahu polymer, nā kīʻaha, nā syringe-ampoules i hoʻohana ʻia e like me ka hoʻopili. ʻO nā mea o ia ipu e pono ke chemically inert - ʻaʻole e hoʻohālikelike, kahi e kāpae ʻia ai ka hoʻololi ʻana i nā waiwai therapeutic o ka lāʻau.

ʻO ke kaʻina hana o ka hana ʻana i nā lāʻau injectable he ʻelua mau pae nui: ka hoʻomākaukau ʻana i nā hopena a i ʻole nā ​​pauka a me ka hoʻomākaukau ʻana i nā ampoules. ʻO ka lāʻau lapaʻau i hoʻopauʻia i loko o ka wai a iʻole ka pauka e hoʻopiha i nā moku, a laila hoʻopaʻaʻia i nā mea hana kūikawā. Hana ʻia nā kaʻina hana āpau i nā lumi o ka papa mua a me ka lua o ka maʻemaʻe ma lalo o nā kūlana aseptic.

ʻO ka ʻoiaʻiʻo, ʻoi aku ka nui o ka nui o kēlā me kēia ampoule ma mua o ka helu nominal, pono e hiki ke hoʻopaʻa pololei i ka lāʻau.

No ka hoʻopiha ʻana i nā ampoules, nā ipu, nā syringes, hoʻohana ʻia ʻekolu mau ala nui:

  1. Syringe - hana ʻia e nā hoʻonohonoho me nā dispenser kūikawā. Hāʻawi i ka dosing pololei a me ka hoʻopiha wikiwiki me ka hoʻohaumia ʻole i nā paia o ka moku.
  2. Vacuum - maʻamau ma Rusia, Ukraine a me nā ʻāina ʻē aʻe e pili ana. Hōʻike ʻia e ka hana kiʻekiʻe.
  3. ʻO ka hoʻoheheʻe ʻana o ka mahu - ʻo ka hoʻokomo mua ʻana i loko o ka ampoule o kahi kinoea inert e hoʻoneʻe ai i ka ea, a laila he hopena ʻaʻole i pili maoli i ke kaiapuni.

Hōʻike ka ʻatikala i ka ʻenehana o nā ʻano hana maʻamau maʻamau, akā mamao loa lākou mai nā mea wale nō, no ka mea i kēlā me kēia makahiki ma kahi o 5,000 mau lāʻau i aʻo ʻia ma ka honua. Loaʻa ka hapa nui o lākou i kahi ʻano hou e hiki ai ke hoʻomaʻamaʻa maikaʻi a maʻalahi hoʻi.

Puna
  1. ʻO ka puka pāʻoihana pūnaewele TatCenter - Nā mea huna: pehea e hana ai i nā lāʻau lapaʻau ]
  2. Nupepa Internet "Segodnya" - Pehea i hana ʻia ai nā lāʻau lapaʻau ma Ukraine: Ua ʻōlelo ʻo Farmak e pili ana i nā ʻenehana holomua
  3. Nupepa pūnaewele "Pharmaceutical Vesnik" - Mai Instinct a ʻEpekema
  4. International Journal of Applied and Basic Research - Ke aʻo ʻana i nā pilina physicochemical i ka pae paʻa ma waena o nā ʻāpana o nā lāʻau analgesic, anti-inflammatory a me antipyretic e pili ana i ka paracetamol
  5. Papa kuhikuhi o nā lāʻau lapaʻau Medum.ru - Methylparaben
  6. Blog o ka hale kūʻai pūnaewele "Optimum System" - He aha nā lāʻau i hana ʻia?
  7. Portal LIGA.net - Pehea i hana ʻia ai nā lāʻau lapaʻau Ukrainian, nāna e mālama iā mākou
  8. Pūnaewele "Hoʻomaʻamaʻa Hana maikaʻi" - ʻenehana hana papa ]
  9. ʻO ka lawelawe pūnaewele lapaʻau kūikawā "Apteka.ua" - Nā ʻenehana hou: i ka ʻimi ʻana i kahi papa "kūpono"
  10. Hale kūʻai pūnaewele "MINIPRESS.ru" - Nā ʻenehana a me nā mea hana no ka hana ʻana i nā ʻano ʻano maʻalahi
  11. Paena hoʻonaʻauao refleader.ru - Hana ʻia o nā ampoules ma ka hale hana