No ka hoʻololi ʻana o nā maʻi maʻi: Coronaviruses a me nā ʻano ʻē aʻe

Virus, mutations, strains - aia kēia mau huaʻōlelo ʻekolu ma nā lehelehe o kēlā me kēia lā. ʻO ka maʻi maʻi coronavirus, ka mea i hoʻopuni kokoke i ka honua holoʻokoʻa, ua noʻonoʻo mākou no hea mai nā maʻi e hoʻololi nui i ke ola o ke kanaka.

I loko o nā makahiki iwakāluakūmālua o ke kenekulia 21 wale nō, ua ʻike mākou i ʻelima mau maʻi maʻi i lilo i mea koʻikoʻi i ka lāʻau lapaʻau honua. Hoʻokumu ʻia kēlā me kēia o lākou e nā maʻi maʻi, akā ʻo ka mea kahaha ma hope o kekahi manawa o ka hoʻi ʻana o nā virions (virus particles), akā i kahi ʻano hoʻololi iki. No laila ma 2002-2003, 27 mau ʻāina o ka honua i kū i kahi maʻi maʻi o SARS, kahi i make ai ma mua o 800 mau mea maʻi. A ʻo kēia wale nō ka hoʻomaka, no ka mea, ke kali nei nā kānaka hou aʻe:

  • ka maʻi puaʻa A / H1N1 i ka makahiki 2009-2010 - hiki i ka helu make kokoke i 19 tausani kānaka;
  • H5N1 a me H7N9 avian influenza 2003-2017 - ma mua o 450 mau hihia i make;
  • ʻO ka Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS-CoV) kahi maʻi maʻi maʻi hanu ʻeha i hoʻokumu ʻia e ka coronavirus pathogenic kanaka MERS-CoV. He haʻahaʻa ka nui o ka make - 430 mau maʻi ma 2012-2015;
  • Ebola hemorrhagic fever, ma 2014-2016 a make 11,300 ola;
  • ʻO COVID-19 ka maʻi maʻi i kēia manawa i hoʻokumu ʻia e ka laha ʻana o ka coronavirus SARS-CoV-2. Lawe i 5.6 miliona mau ola.

He mea maʻalahi ka ʻike ʻana i kekahi mau inoa o nā maʻi maʻi he mea like. ʻAʻole kēia he mea kupanaha, no ka mea hiki ke hoʻokumu ʻia e nā virus mutated o ka ʻano like. E ho'āʻo kākou e noʻonoʻo i ke ʻano o ka mutation virus a me ke kumu o ia mea.

He aha ia virus, kona ʻano a me kona mau hiʻohiʻona

Hōʻike ʻia ka honua o nā microorganism e kekahi mau ʻano ʻokoʻa, ʻokoʻa kēlā me kēia me nā mea ʻē aʻe. Aia nā maʻi virus i kēia hui, ʻoiai he mau hiʻohiʻona ko lākou ʻaʻole i ʻike ʻia i ke koena o nā ʻelele o ka honua holoholona a me nā mea kanu i ʻike ʻole ʻia e ka maka. ʻO ka mea mua, ʻaʻohe o lākou ʻano kelepona a me nā ʻōnaehana hana protein. ʻO ka lua, ua haʻi lākou i ka cytotropism a me ka parasitism intracellular.

Ua helu nā kānaka ʻepekema e aʻo ana i nā maʻi maʻi ma mua o 10 o kēia mau microorganisms ma ka Honua. Loaʻa iā lākou nā ʻano like ʻole, ka nui a me nā pōʻai ola, akā hoʻohui kekahi mau waiwai i nā maʻi maʻi āpau:

  • ke kū ʻana o kahi capsid - kahi ʻōnaehana pale pale;
  • genome, nona ka DNA a i ʻole RNA a aia i loko o ka capsid;
  • supercapsid - he pūpū e uhi ana i ka capsid, akā ʻaʻole i loaʻa i nā ʻano maʻi maʻi āpau.

Ke komo ka ma'i ma'i i loko o ka hale ho'okipa, ho'omaka ia e mahuahua koke. ʻO ka hopena, ʻike ʻia nā kope he nui o ka mea kumu o ka maʻi, a laila e hoʻopilikia i nā ʻāpana ʻē aʻe o ke kino.

I ke kaʻina hana o ka hana hou a me ka lawe ʻana i ka maʻi maʻi, i kekahi manawa aia ka hoʻololi ʻana i ka mea genetic i loko o ka genome. ʻO kēia ka mea i kapa ʻia he mutation.

ʻOi aku ka nui o nā maʻi maʻi e hoʻopuʻi pinepine a hana hou, ʻoi aku ka nui o ka manawa e puka mai ai nā maʻi hou.

Hiki i kēlā ʻano hoʻololi ke hana i nā maʻi maʻi i maʻalahi ke hoʻololi i ke kaiapuni o waho, loaʻa ka maʻi lele kiʻekiʻe, a ke kumu i nā hōʻailona like ʻole a me ke ʻano o ka maʻi. Kapa ʻia kēia kaʻina hana evolution.

ʻO nā kumu nui o ka hoʻololi ʻana i ka maʻi maʻi

I kēlā me kēia makahiki, ʻike ʻia nā maʻi maʻi hou ma ka honua. Ua wehewehe ʻia kēia e ka ulu ʻana o nā maʻi maʻi, hiki koke mai a hiki ke hana ʻia ma nā ala ʻelua:

  • recombination: i kēia hihia, hoʻopili nā microorganism i ka cell like a hoʻololi i nā mea genetic. me kekahi i kekahi;
  • mutation: he hoʻololi i ke kaʻina o nā kaulahao DNA a RNA paha i loko o ka maʻi maʻi ponoʻī.

Loaʻa ka hui hou ʻana i ka maʻi maʻi influenza, no ka mea, ʻewalu kona mau ʻāpana RNA i ka manawa hoʻokahi, e lawe ana kēlā me kēia mai kekahi a i kekahi mau genes. Ke komo i loko o ke kino ʻelua mau ʻano ʻano like ʻole o ka pathogen hoʻokahi, hana ʻia nā microorganism hou me nā ʻāpana hui.

Hoʻopuka pū ka hoʻololi ʻana i nā kānana hou, akā ʻokoʻa loa ke kaʻina hana. No ka puka ʻana mai o kahi maʻi hou, ʻaʻole pono ka maʻi like ʻole me ʻelua mau pathogens, no ka mea, hiki i nā loli āpau ke kope ʻia ka maʻi. Ua ʻike ʻia ua loli pinepine nā maʻi DNA ma mua o RNA. Ua wehewehe nā kānaka ʻepekema i kēia hiʻohiʻona me kahi ʻokoʻa koʻikoʻi: no nā maʻi maʻi DNA, i ke kaʻina o ke kope ʻana, pono lākou i ka DNA polymerase, kahi enzyme e komo i loko o nā keena hoʻokipa. ʻO ia ka mea e ʻike a hoʻoponopono i nā hewa, e pale ana i ka puka ʻana mai o nā maʻi i hoʻololi ʻia, akā hiki i nā virions ke kāpae i kēia ʻano hana i kekahi manawa.

ʻAʻole hiki i ka RNA polymerase i ka hana hou ʻana i nā maʻi virus RNA, no laila ʻaʻohe hoʻoponopono. No laila, ʻoi aku ka nui o ka hiki ʻana mai o nā maʻi maʻi hou.

ʻAʻole nui loa nā maʻi maʻi maʻi me nā ʻano maʻi he nui. Loaʻa nā hoʻololi kaulana loa a maʻamau i influenza, HIV, coronavirus. No ka laʻana, i ka wā holoʻokoʻa o SARS-CoV-2, ua hoʻokumu ʻia nā ʻano ʻano he ʻumikumamākolu. Ua hoʻomaka ka maʻi maʻi COVID-19 me kahi ʻano i ʻike ʻia ma Dekemaba 2019 ma ke kūlanakauhale Kina o Wuhan.

Nā hopena o ka hoʻololi virus

He maikaʻi a maikaʻi ʻole paha ka hoʻololi ʻana? ʻAʻole hiki ke pane pololei ʻia kēia nīnau, no ka mea, ʻokoʻa ka hopena i kēlā me kēia hihia. No kekahi mau maʻi, lilo ka mutation o nā virion i manawa kūpono e "manaʻo" ʻoi aku ka ʻoluʻolu i ke kino, aʻo nā mea ʻē aʻe, alakaʻi ia i ka maʻi maʻalahi a hoʻōla koke.

I loko o ka maʻi HIV, ʻo ka hoʻololi ʻana o ka gene e hana i nā ʻano hou kekahi o nā kumu nui o ke kūʻē ʻana i ka lāʻau. ʻO ka mea e ālai ai i ka hoʻopiʻi HIV, hoʻohana ʻia kahi inhibitor transcriptase reverse, ʻo ke ʻano o ka hana e hui pū me kēia enzyme i ka maʻi. Me ka ʻole o kona komo ʻana, ʻaʻole hiki i ka virion ke kope i ka genome, akā hoʻololi pololei kekahi mau mea viral i ka gen transcriptase reverse, no laila ʻaʻole hana ka lāʻau lapaʻau iā lākou. No kēia kumu, no ka lapaʻau ʻana i ka maʻi HIV, hoʻohana ʻia kahi lāʻau lapaʻau hui o nā lāʻau lapaʻau e pili ana i nā pōʻai like ʻole o ka ulu ʻana o ka maʻi maʻi.

Ka hopena i ka ʻike ʻana i ka maʻi maʻi a me ke kaʻina hana o ka lāʻau lapaʻau. He mea nui ka hāʻule ʻole o nā ʻano hou mai ke ʻano o nā ʻano ʻike i hoʻohana ʻia i kēia lā. Ua hoʻokumu ka WHO Global Laboratory Network i kahi hana hana e aʻo i ka ulu ʻana o SARS-CoV-2. Lawe kona mau ʻelele i nā laʻana mai nā maʻi me nā hōʻailona atypical hou a hoʻouna aku no ka noiʻi hou aku. ʻO ia mau ʻanuʻu e hiki ai ke nānā i ka puka ʻana mai o nā maʻi hou, ko lākou hopena i ke kanaka, a me ka maikaʻi o nā lāʻau lapaʻau i nā ʻano hou.

I kēia lā, hoʻokō ʻia ka ʻike o ka coronavirus e 100% nā ala kūpono, ʻoiai ua hoʻoholo ʻia e nā genes RdRp (ORF1ab) a me N, ʻaʻole e hoʻololi iki.

ʻO ke kūlana me ʻoi aku ka paʻakikī : kahi ʻano hou o ka coronavirus "omicron" i ʻike ʻia i kekahi mau mahina i hala aku nei, e hoʻopilikia ana i ka hoʻoikaika ʻana o nā ʻepekema a me nā kauka. hoʻomohala mau kano kūʻē iā COVID-19. ʻOiai ʻoi aku ka liʻiliʻi o kahi pōʻino olakino i hoʻohālikelike ʻia i nā ʻano mua, ua nīnau ʻo ia i ka maikaʻi o ka lāʻau lapaʻau. No laila, ʻike ʻia nā hoʻāʻo o ka lāʻau lapaʻau Pfizer e pale ana i ka omicron e 22.5% wale nō. Ua hana ʻia kēia hopena e ka poʻe loea o ka African Research Institute of Health ma Durban (South Africa). No ka hana ʻana i kēia, lawe lākou i nā laʻana plasma koko mai 12 mau maʻi maʻi i hāʻule i ka maʻi me kēia ʻano coronavirus. Hoʻokumu ʻia ke aʻo ʻana ma ka hoʻoholo ʻana o ka neutralizing antibodies i ke kino. I ka manawa like, hana lākou i ka manaʻo e hoʻomaʻamaʻa ka maʻi maʻi i ke ala o ka maʻi, pale i ka hiki ʻana mai o nā pilikia.

I ka wā ma mua, ua loiloi ʻia ka maikaʻi o ka lāʻau lapaʻau me ka lāʻau biotech e nā ʻepekema Pelekane. Ua ʻoi aku ka maikaʻi o kā lākou hopena: ʻo ke kolu o ka nui o nā lāʻau lapaʻau mRNA mai Pfizer a me AstraZeneca i hoʻonui i ka pale o ke kino i ka omicron e 75%.

ʻAʻole naʻe he pessimistic nā mea a pau. ʻOiai ka piʻi ʻana o ka nui o nā poʻe maʻi me ka coronavirus o ka Omicron strain, he liʻiliʻi nā halemai i waena o ka poʻe i hoʻopaʻa ʻia. ʻOiaʻiʻo, ke kū nei ka laha ʻana o ka maʻi maʻi maʻi, akā ua hana ʻia nā wānana manaʻo maikaʻi: ʻo ka ulu ʻana o SARS-CoV-2 kokoke loa i ka pau ʻana. ʻO ke kumu o ka maʻi ʻaʻole e pepehi i ke kanaka a make iā ia iho, akā e hoʻomau i kona pōʻai ola, no laila pono ia e hoʻololi i kahi ʻano nāwaliwali.

ʻAʻole nalo loa ʻo COVID-19 mai ko mākou ola. Akā ʻo kona ʻano makahiki i ka wā o nā maʻi hanu me nā hōʻailona maʻalahi ʻaʻole ia e pōʻino. No laila hiki i ka mutation o nā maʻi ke hana maikaʻi.

Puna
  1. Paena pūnaewele o ka 'Oihana Ola o ka Mokupuni o Moscow. – Epidemics o ke kenekulia 21: 5 mau maʻi ʻino o ka mōʻaukala hou.
  2. Pharmaceutical Encyclopedia. - Virus.
  3. Pahu pūnaewele “Hitech”. - Ua helu nā kānaka ʻepekema i ka helu o nā maʻi ma ka Honua. ʻOi aku ka nui o lākou ma mua o nā hōkū ma ke ao holoʻokoʻa.
  4. kahua pūnaewele ʻo Khan Academy. – Introduction to viruses.
  5. Nūhou puka “Liga. ʻoihana”. - ʻO ka hoʻomohala ʻana o Coronavirus: no ke aha e hoʻololi ai ka maʻi a pehea e ʻike ai i nā maʻi hou.
  6. Wikipedia - nā ʻano ʻano SARS-CoV-2. Pākaukau pivot.
  7. kahua pūnaewele ʻo Khan Academy. – Hoʻololi o nā maʻi maʻi.
  8. Paʻi pūnaewele "Forbes.ru". – Ua manaʻo ʻia he 23% ka lāʻau lapaʻau a Pfizer e kūʻē i ka Omicron strain.
  9. Puka nūhou “Gazeta.ru”. - Ua kamaʻilio ka loea maʻi maʻi e pili ana i nā wānana manaʻo maikaʻi no ka maʻi Omicron.