ʻO ka mōʻaukala o nā ʻike olakino: mai ka wā kahiko a hiki i ke kenekulia 21

"ʻO kēlā me kēia hale aʻu e komo ai, e komo wau i laila no ka pōmaikaʻi o ka poʻe maʻi" - kahi ʻōlelo mai ka hoʻohiki ʻana o ke kauka, i pili iā Hippocrates. Mai ka wā kahiko mai, aia ka lāʻau lapaʻau i ke ola kanaka. ʻOiaʻiʻo, ʻaʻole hiki ke hoʻohālikelike ʻia nā ʻenehana hou a me nā ʻano o ka mālama ʻana me nā mea i hoʻohana ʻia i mau makahiki i hala aku nei, akā ua hoʻokumu ko mākou mau kūpuna i ke kumu o kēia ʻepekema. Nui nā mea nui i ʻike ʻia i ia mau lā, a ʻo ka hapa nui o ia mau mea ke hoʻohana maikaʻi ʻia nei.

Ua kaulana kēlā me kēia au no kekahi mea nona iho. Mahalo i ka hana koʻikoʻi o nā archaeologists, nā mea kākau moʻolelo, waiho i nā moʻolelo i kākau ʻia, nā kaha kiʻi, i kēia lā hiki iā mākou ke aʻo e pili ana i kēia mau mea āpau.

Medicine of the Ancient World

ʻO ka lāʻau Helene kahiko ka mea i manaʻo ʻia ʻo ia ka progenitor o nā lāʻau lapaʻau hou a me nā lāʻau lapaʻau. ʻO ka hapa nui o nā ʻike mōʻaukala e mau nei e pili ana iā ia. Akā ʻo ka ʻoiaʻiʻo, me ka ʻole o ʻAigupita kahiko a me Mesopotamia, ʻoi aku ka lōʻihi o ka hoʻomohala ʻana i ka lāʻau lapaʻau ma Ancient Greece.

Ua aʻo mau ko ʻAigupita i ke anatomy kanaka. Na lākou ka wehewehe mua o ka lolo, pololei loa a like me nā mana hou o ka puke. Ua ʻike pū lākou i nā ʻano o ke kanaka e like me ka puʻuwai, nā ʻiʻo, nā puʻupaʻa, nā ʻōpū, nā aʻa koko. Nui nā palapala i iho mai iā mākou mai kēia au mai ka ʻike i hoʻopaʻa ʻia i ke kenekulia 20. ʻO kahi laʻana, ʻo ka Smith Papyrus, kahi palapala lapaʻau e pili ana i ke ʻano o ke kino o ke kanaka a me ka mālama ʻana i nā maʻi, e wehewehe ana i ka pīpī ʻana i nā ʻeha purulent me ka berena a i ʻole ka ʻōpala lāʻau. Ua hōʻoia ʻia ka maikaʻi o kēia ʻano hana ma hope o kekahi mau millennia e Alexander Fleming, he kanaka bacteriologist Pelekane nāna i hoʻokaʻawale i ka penicillin antibiotic mai ka mold, mahalo i hoʻopakele ʻo ia i nā ola he nui. I ka makahiki 1945, ua loaʻa iā ia ka makana Nobel no kēia ʻike.

He mea nui i ʻike ʻia, ʻo ke kumu i hiki ʻole ai i ko ʻAigupita ke hōʻoia, akā ua hoʻomaopopo i kona pono - ka mālama ʻana i ka maʻemaʻe a me ka maʻemaʻe. Ua ʻike lākou ʻo ke aniau, ka haʻahaʻa kiʻekiʻe, ke kahe pinepine ʻana, a me ka laha ʻana o nā helminthiases hiki ke hoʻoulu i nā maʻi maʻi, no laila ua nānā pono lākou i ka holoi ʻana o nā kamaʻāina iā lākou iho me ka wai anuanu, holo, nānā i ka hoʻohaʻahaʻa ʻana i ka meaʻai, a hoʻomaʻamaʻa i nā ala ala mua. Aia kekahi mau hōʻike e pili ana nā kauka i ke kūkulu ʻana i nā pyramids.ʻO kā lākou hana ka ʻauʻau ʻana o nā limahana i kēlā me kēia lā a hoʻololi i ko lākou malo. Pono e hoʻokaʻawale ʻia ka poʻe i loaʻa i ka maʻi ma kahi pā kaʻawale. A ʻo nā hale kūʻokoʻa a pau i noho ai ka poʻe kūkulu hale, ua puhi ʻia i kēlā me kēia makahiki a kūkulu ʻia nā hale hou. No laila ua hoʻokō ka poʻe ʻAigupita i ka pale ʻana i nā maʻi maʻi a me nā maʻi. ʻO ia wale nō i ke kenekulia 19 i hōʻoia ʻo Louis Pasteur i ke kumu bacteria o ka hapa nui o nā maʻi a me ka hiki ke lawe ʻia ma o ka maʻemaʻe maikaʻi ʻole a me ka sterility.

Ua hana ʻia kahi kōkua nui i ka hoʻomohala ʻana i ka lāʻau lapaʻau ma Mesopotamia. Ma laila i kūkulu ʻia ai kekahi mau ʻenehana koʻikoʻi no ka hoʻomākaukau ʻana i nā lāʻau lapaʻau: paila, kānana, hoʻoheheʻe. Eia kekahi, ua hoʻomaopopo mua nā ʻelele o kēia ʻāina kahiko i ka pilina ma waena o ka lawe ʻana i nā lāʻau lapaʻau a me nā meaʻai. A ʻo ka mea nui loa, aia ma Babulona, ​​ma ke ʻano he ʻāpana o Mesopotamia, aia ke kuleana no ka mālama hewa ʻana i kahi maʻi. Ma mua o kēia, ʻaʻohe hoʻokolokolo o nā kauka.

Ua ʻike ʻia ʻo Hippocrates, he kauka-manaʻo mai Helene kahiko, no kāna hāʻawi nui ʻana i ka lāʻau lapaʻau. Ua hōʻoia ʻia ka nui o kāna mau mea i ʻike ʻia e ka ʻepekema hou a hoʻohana mau ʻia:

  • nā ʻano o nā ʻano, ʻoiai ua loaʻa iā lākou ko lākou mau inoa ma hope;
  • ke kau ʻana o nā maʻi, ʻo ia hoʻi, ka piʻi mau ʻana o ka maʻi;
  • nā ʻano o ka nānā ʻana i ka mea maʻi - palpation, auscultation, percussion;
  • nā ʻano o ka mālama ʻana i nā ʻeha.
  • ʻO Hippocrates ka mea mua i wehewehe i ke kūlana o nā lima, nā māmā a me nā mea hana.

A ʻo kāna haʻawina koʻikoʻi i ka lāʻau lapaʻau, ʻo ia ka hoʻokaʻawale ʻana i ʻelua manaʻo - ʻo ke akeakamai a me ka lāʻau lapaʻau.

Loaʻa i ka Middle Ages

Ua loaʻa i ka lāʻau Medieval i kahi kūlana paʻakikī: ʻaʻole lawa ka ʻike o nā kauka kahiko, ʻaʻole i heluhelu ʻia kā lākou mau hana pāpā ʻia e ka ʻekalesia, a ua hoʻomaka wale ʻia ke kumu kumu e hōʻiliʻili. Ua kōkua kēia mau kūlana i ka hoʻokomo ʻana i nā ʻenehana hou i ka mālama ʻana i ka mea maʻi.

ʻO kahi hoʻokō koʻikoʻi i ka lāʻau lapaʻau i nā kenekulia 9-16 ʻo ia ka wehe ʻana o nā halemai, ua lilo maoli lākou i mau ʻoihana mua e hiki ke kōkua i ke kanaka maʻi.

ʻOiaʻiʻo, he mau hale kēia no nā poʻe maʻi home ʻole. I ka hoʻomaka ʻana, ʻaʻohe mālama kūikawā i nā haukapila, akā i ka manawa, ua ʻike ʻia nā prototypes o nā halemai hou me nā papa ma nā ʻāina ʻEulopa, kahi e hiki ai i nā mea maʻi.

Ua ʻoi aku ka maikaʻi o ka hoʻonaʻauao ʻana o nā kauka.ʻO ka wehe ʻana o ke Kula Lapaʻau ʻo Salerno ma Italia, kahi i hele ai nā kauka lapaʻau i ko lākou ʻike, he hoʻomaka maikaʻi loa ia no ka hoʻomohala ʻana i ka lāʻau lapaʻau ʻaʻole wale ma kēia ʻāina. Pono e aʻo no 9 mau makahiki, e hoʻomaʻamaʻa i ka ʻoki a me ke aʻo ʻana i ke anatomy ma nā kino o nā holoholona a me nā kānaka. I ke kenekulia 12, ua hoʻomaka ia mau kula e lilo i mau kulanui.

Ua lawa nā ʻike koʻikoʻi i ʻike ʻia ma ke kahua o ka ʻokiʻoki. ʻO ke kauka lapaʻau Italia ʻo Lucca i ke kenekulia 13 i hana i nā ʻōhuʻu i hoʻopau ai ka mea maʻi i ka ʻeha a me ka ʻike. ʻO ka ʻoiaʻiʻo, ʻo ia ka prototype o ka anesthesia hou. I ka manawa like, ua ʻōlelo kekahi kauka lapaʻau mai Farani, ʻo Henri de Mondeville, e humuhumu i ka ʻeha, a ua kūʻē ʻo ia i ka hoʻāʻo ʻana.

ʻO ka ʻike o nā kauka a me nā ʻepekema i nā kenekulia 16-19

ʻO nā kenekulia 16-19 kekahi o nā mea koʻikoʻi loa i ka lāʻau lapaʻau, no ka mea i loko o kēia wā. ua nui nā ʻike koʻikoʻi i loaʻa i lilo i mea holomua maoli i ka hoʻomohala ʻana i ka ho'ōla a me ka hiki ke hoʻopakele i nā poʻe me nā ʻano ʻoluʻolu a palekana.

Anesthesia: I ka makahiki 1846, i ka wā o ka hana ʻana no ka wehe ʻana i kahi maʻi maʻi ma ka iwi ā lalo, ua hoʻohana ʻia ka anesthesia ether mua o ka honua e ke kauā ʻo John Warren. Ua kōkua ʻia ʻo ia e ka mea anesthesiologist ʻo William Morton. Hōʻike nā hōʻike mōʻaukala ʻaʻole kēia ka hoʻāʻo mua e hoʻohana i ka anesthesia, akā ʻaʻohe o lākou i laha loa. Mahalo i kēia ʻike, ua hiki i nā kauka ke hana i nā hana me ka ʻole o ka ʻeha. Antiseptics: ʻo nā laurels o kona hoʻokomo ʻana i ka lāʻau lapaʻau i hāʻawi ʻia i ʻelua kauka i ka manawa hoʻokahi - ka Hungarian Semelweis a me ka British Lister. ʻO ka mea mua, i ka makahiki 1847, ua ho'āʻo e kālailai i ke kumu o ka sepsis i nā wāhine hānau, a ua hoʻoholo i nā kauka ponoʻī ka hewa no kēia, nāna e nānā i nā wahine hāpai a me ka poʻe i hānau keiki, holoi wale i ko lākou mau lima me kahi kāwele ma hope. ke kipa ʻana i nā maʻi lele a me ka ʻoihana pathoanatomical. Ma kāna ʻōlelo aʻoaʻo, ua kauoha ʻia nā limahana a pau e hana ana i ka hale maternity e disinfect i ko lākou mau lima i ka bleach. Ua hoemi keia i ka make o na wahine hanau a me na keiki hou ma kahi o ehiku manawa. A laila ʻaʻole hiki i nā helu helu ke hoʻololi i ke kūlana. Ua hoʻomāʻewaʻewa ʻia ke kauka, hoʻohewa ʻia, a ua inaina nā kauka ponoʻī i ke kauka. Ua make ʻo Semelweis ma kahi haukapila psychiatric mai sepsis ma hope o ka hahau ʻia ʻana. Ua hiki iā Joseph Lister ke hoʻokō i ka kūleʻa, nāna, 20 mau makahiki ma hope mai, hoʻokomo i nā antiseptics i ka lāʻau lapaʻau. No kēia hoʻokō, ua loaʻa iā ia ke poʻo inoa o ka Haku.

Vaccination : ʻike ʻia i ka lāʻau lapaʻau ma ka hopena o ke kenekulia 18. Ma mua o kēlā, make nā keiki a me nā poʻe mākua i ka maʻi maʻi liʻiliʻi. Aʻo kaʻike waleʻana i ka pilina ma waena o ka maʻi me ka cowpox a me ka hoʻokumuʻana i ka palekana i nāʻano koʻikoʻi, ua hoʻomakaʻo E. Jenner e hoʻokolohua. Ma muli o kāna noiʻi, ua hiki iā ia ke hoʻomohala i kahi kano, mahalo iā ia i lanakila ai i ka maʻi mau loa. ʻO ia ka lāʻau lapaʻau i hāʻawi i ka manaʻolana e pale aku i ke kanaka mai kahi maʻi maʻi, e hoʻohana mau ʻia nei i kēia lā.

ʻAʻole i emi iki nā mea i ʻike ʻia no ka lāʻau lapaʻau i nā kenekulia 15-19 ka mea i hana ʻia o ka mīkini X-ray (1895), ka endoscope (1806), ka condom rubber (1855).

ʻO nā mea i ʻike maikaʻi ʻia o ka 20th-21st century

Ua hōʻailona ʻia nā haneli mau makahiki hope o ka millennium lua e ka holomua koʻikoʻi i ka lāʻau lapaʻau. ʻO ka hoʻomohala ʻana i ka ʻenehana, ka loaʻa ākea o ka ʻike, ka hiki ke kamaʻilio me nā hoa hana mai nā ʻāina like ʻole o ka honua i hiki ke hana i nā ʻike nui he nui. I ka makahiki 1901, ua ʻike ke kauka Austrian, immunologist, chemist Karl Landsteiner i ke ola ʻana o nā ʻano koko like ʻole a me ka helu Rh, no laila ua loaʻa iā ia ka makana no ka Nobel ma Physiology a i ʻole Medicine i ka makahiki 1930. e hoʻokō i nā hana paʻakikī, a hiki i ka hopena ke make ma muli o ke kahe koko koʻikoʻi.

He mau makahiki wale nō ma hope mai, ua ʻike ʻo Frederick Gowland Hopkins, he kanaka biochemist Pelekane, i nā huaora e hoʻoulu ai i ka ulu. I ka makahiki 1929, ua loaʻa iā ia ka makana Nobel no kēia ʻike ʻana, ʻoiai ua mamao loa ʻo ia mai ka mea wale nō i aʻo i nā huaora. I loko o nā makahiki, ua aʻo nā kānaka ʻepekema e like me Kazimierz Funk, Christian Eikman, a me Nikolai Lunin i kahi hui o nā mea e pono ai ke kino o ke kanaka.

​​​​

ʻO nā hanana koʻikoʻi o ke kenekulia 20:

  • ka loaʻa ʻana o ka insulin i ka makahiki 1922 a me kāna lawelawe ʻana i kahi keiki i loko o kahi koma diabetic.;
  • ka hana ʻana i nā lāʻau lapaʻau kūʻē i ka maʻi maʻi maʻi maʻi maʻi maʻi maʻi maʻi maʻi maʻi maʻi maʻi maʻi maʻi maʻi maʻi maʻi maʻi maʻi maʻi maʻi maʻi maʻi maʻi maʻi
  • ʻike ʻia i ka makahiki 1928 i nā waiwai antimicrobial o ka penicillin;
  • ka hana ʻana i ka mīkini dialysis kidney, mīkini ultrasound, computed tomography scanner, magnetic resonance imaging scanner, optical tweezers;
  • ka hoʻololi ʻana i ka naʻau kanaka mua.

ʻAʻole lohi ka 21st century ma ke ʻano o ka ʻike olakino, no ka mea, hoʻomau nā ʻepekema a me nā kauka i ke aʻo ʻana i ke kino kanaka, hoʻomohala i nā mea hou, nā mea hana a me nā lāʻau lapaʻau. Mai ka hoʻomaka ʻana o ke kenekulia a hiki i kēia lā, ua ʻike ʻia nā tausani o nā mea paʻakikī e wehewehe.ʻO kekahi o nā mea nui loa:

  • ka hoʻomohala ʻana o kahi puʻuwai hana i hoʻokomo ʻia i loko o kahi mea maʻi ma 2001;
  • ka hana ʻana i mea paʻi no ka paʻi 3D o nā implants;
  • maʻalahi mālama HIV ma ka hana ʻana i kahi lāʻau Stribild multicomponent;
  • ka hoʻohana ʻana i nā hana laparoscopic i nā ʻano lāʻau lapaʻau, ʻo ka pōmaikaʻi nui ʻo ia ka liʻiliʻi invasiveness;
  • hoʻomohala ʻana i nā lāʻau lapaʻau ʻelua-vector ma muli o RNA.

ʻO kēia mau hana a pau, a me nā mea ʻē aʻe he nui i hana ʻia e nā ʻepekema no nā makahiki he nui, e lilo ia i kumu maikaʻi loa no ka lāʻau lapaʻau o ka wā e hiki mai ana.

Hiki ke hoʻohana, hoʻomaikaʻi ʻia, hōʻole ʻia a hōʻoia ʻia paha nā mea hana, e like me kā mākou e hana nei me nā mea i ʻike ʻia i nā kenekulia i hala.

Puna
  1. Vyborg Interdistrict Hospital. – The Hippocratic Oath.
  2. Portal “Osvita.ua”. – Phenomenal achievement of medicine in Ancient Egypt.
  3. Pūnaewele lāʻau lapaʻau "Pharmacy Economics". - Moʻolelo o ka lāʻau lapaʻau o ka honua kahiko.
  4. Portal o nā mea lapaʻau. – Lapaau ma Mesopotamia.
  5. Puke puke "Hoʻonaʻauao". – Biography of Hippocrates
  6. Pūnaewele pūnaewele “CONCEPTURE”. - "Pehea e hana ai": "Nā Pōʻeleʻele". Laau Lapaau o ka Middle Ages
  7. Wikipedia. - lāʻau Medieval.
  8. Pūnaewele "ANEST-REAN". - Moʻolelo o ka anesthesiology.
  9. Paena o ke kaiāulu Nemovitsky. - Ignats Semmelweis - ka mea nāna i hoʻokumu i ka asepsis a me ka makua kāne o ka hoʻomaʻemaʻe lima.
  10. Ke Kuhina Ola o ka Repubalika o Belarus. - Nā maʻi maʻi - i hala, i kēia manawa, i ka wā e hiki mai ana.
  11. Paena o ka National University of Bioresources a me Nature Conservation o Ukraine. - Karl Landsteiner - Kauka Austrian, immunologist, chemist, infectious disease specialist; ʻO ka mea mua, ke kumu o ka hōʻuluʻulu ʻana o nā ʻano koko like ʻole no nā hui, ka helu Rh o ke koko.
  12. ʻO ka pūnaewele kūhelu o ka lāʻau lapaʻau Planet Health. - Ka moʻolelo o ka loaʻa ʻana o nā huaora.
  13. Blog "BASETOP" - 10 mau holomua lapaʻau nui loa o ke kenekulia 21.