Beet

Beet (beetroot) is a herbaceous plant of the Amaranth family. The following types of root crops are distinguished: fodder, sugar, ordinary (dining room), leafy. All of them come from wild beets, which are native to India and the Far East. Initially, only the leaves of the plant were eaten, and medicinal potions were prepared from the roots. The ancient Greeks sacrificed vegetables to the god of light - Apollo.

Today, beet leaves and roots are used for animal feed, as a raw material for sugar production, and in cooking.

According to the London School of Medicine, beetroot effectively lowers blood pressure, supplies the body with folic acid, potassium, and antioxidants.

Species and varieties

When choosing seeds, pay attention to the type and variety of the root crop, which determine its taste, structure, shape, size and speed maturation.

There are several varieties of beets:

1. Canteen. This is a cold-resistant light-loving plant that contains 16% sugars, 3% protein, 1.4% fiber, 1.3% vitamins and minerals, 0.5% organic acids. Leaves and a weighty single root crop are used for food, which has a sweetish taste. A ripe vegetable has a juicy, elastic pulp without villi and hard veins. It is added to vinaigrettes, beetroot, borscht. This is the most famous variety of beetroot. Common varieties of table beets: "Veroduna Albina", "Valens", "Madame Rouzhette F1".

2. Aft. A prominent representative of this species is the "Eckendorf yellow". Root crops of fodder beet are cylindrical, elongated-oval, conical, rounded, not strongly developed. The distinctive features of this variety include high fiber content and impressive size. In everyday life, a vegetable is grown exclusively for fattening livestock. The most productive variety is considered "Arnimkrivenskaya". The root crop has a cylindrical configuration and rises ¾ above the ground. Fodder beet improves the quality of offspring in farm animals, increases milk yield in cows. Among other popular varieties, “Northern Orange”, “Firstborn”, “Titanium”, “Timiryazevskaya one-seeded” are noted.

  1. Sugar. This is a white beetwhich is primarily grown for sugar, the content of which reaches up to 23%. Representatives of the species are "Detroit", "Bohemia", "Bona", "Lark". These are prolific varieties that can be stored for a long time. Root crops weighing up to 600 g grow from seeds. 600 centners of the crop can be harvested from one hectare.
  1. Leaf (chard). In appearance, such beets resemble spinach. The leaves of this root crop are natural sources of carotene and organic acids. Popular varieties include pink passion, lucullus, rhubarb chard. In cooking, juicy cuttings and young leaves are used until they are coarsened. Chard is a medicinal plant that is useful for kidney stone disease, obesity, diabetes, hypertension, anemia.

The most productive varieties of beets are “Podzimnaya A-474”, “Bordeaux 237”, “cylinder”. From one square meter of the site, you can collect up to 8 kg of root crops. Buryak grows up to 7 cm wide and 20 cm deep.

The high yield of a root vegetable is due to its compact placement in the garden. It is equally important to choose high-quality seeds for sowing, create favorable conditions for crop growth (warmth, sun, moisture) and control the growth of weeds.

Chemical composition

Beet is a biennial plant with a thick turnip-like dark red root. The leaves on the stem are oblong, small, purple-green. The root of this vegetable is fleshy, protrudes above the soil surface. The length of the leaf rosette, as a rule, does not exceed 0.5 m.

In terms of iron content, red beet ranks second after garlic. And in terms of its ability to saturate the body with iodine, it is second only to seaweed.

Table No. 1 "Chemical composition of raw and cooked beets"
Name Content of useful substances, mg per 100 g of product
Boiled Raw
Vitamins
Retinol (A) 0.002 0.002
Thiamine (B1) 0.027 0.031
Riboflavin (B2) 0.04 0.04
Choline (B4) 6.3 6
Pantothenic acid (B5) 0.145 0.155
Pyridoxine (B6) 0.067 0.067
Folic acid (B9) 0.08 0.109
Ascorbic acid (C) 3.6 4.9
Tocopherol (E) 0.04 0.04
Phylloquinone (K) 0.0002 0.0002
Niacin (PP) 0.331 0.334
Betaine 128.7
Macronutrients
Potassium 305 325
Sodium 77 78
Phosphorus 38 40
Magnesium 23 23
Calcium 16 16
Trace elements
Iron 0.79 0.8
Zinc 0.35 0.35
Manganese 0.326 0.329
Copper 0.074 0.075
Selenium 0.0007 0.0007

The calorie content of raw and boiled beets is 43 kcal and 44 kcal, respectively, per 100 g of product. The ratio of BJU is 17%: 4%: 79% for boiled root and 18%: 5%: 77% for raw.

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Table No. 2 "Nutritional value of raw and cooked beets"
Name Content, g per 100 g of product
BoiledRaw
Proteins 1.68 1, 61
Fat 0.18 0.17
Carbs 7.96 6.76
Water 87.06 87.58
Ash 1.12 1.08
Dietary fiber (fiber) 2 2.8
Mono- and disaccharides 7.96 6.76
Essentials amino acids 0.442 0.423
Non-essential amino acids 0.828 0.793
Phytosterols 0.025
Saturated fatty acids (palmitic, stearic) 0.028 0.027
Monounsaturated fatty acids ( omega-9 ) 0.035 0.032
Polyunsaturated fatty acids (linoleic, linolenic) 0.064 0.06

Due to the abundance of useful substances (mineral salts, vitamins, organic acids, saccharides, dietary fiber, proteins), beets are used in medicine as a tonic, vasodilator, sedative, which to It also improves digestion and metabolism.

The benefits and harms of raw beets

The raw vegetable contains betanin, betaine, potassium and calcium salts, iodine, fiber, which have a beneficial effect on human health:

  • remove salts of heavy metals and radionuclides from the body (purify the blood);
  • restore liver function;
  • balance metabolic processes;
  • improve the condition of capillaries, strengthen the walls of blood vessels;
  • lower blood pressure;
  • compensate for the lack of iodine, iron;
  • stimulate intestinal peristalsis (normalize stools);
  • maintain normal acid-base balance in human blood;
  • improve the absorption of proteins, the transport of hemoglobin in the blood (prevent oxygen starvation);
  • increase efficiency, preserve memory;
  • protect the thyroid gland from adverse environmental factors.

Betaine, which is part of raw beets, fights osteoporosis, Alzheimer's disease, atherosclerosis, heart pathologies, anemia, mastopathy, thrombophlebitis.

According to research by American scientists, the pigment betacyanin, which gives beets their characteristic dark red color, is a powerful antioxidant that slows down the growth of malignant neoplasms.

Among the contraindications to the use of the root crop, the following are noted:

  • diseases of the gastrointestinal tract at the acute stage;
  • gastritis with high acidity;
  • hypotension;
  • tendency to diarrhea ;
  • diabetes mellitus ;
  • second stage urolithiasis;
  • allergy.

Start taking raw beets gradually with 5 grams (one teaspoon) of grated vegetable per day and watch the body's reaction. In the absence of adverse reactions (nausea, headaches, rashes, diarrhea), gradually increase the daily dose of the product up to 200 g.

It is recommended to combine the intake of raw beets with fresh cucumbers or carrots, which soften the active effect of the vegetable. The root crop should be a rich dark red color, elastic, without white inclusions. It is believed that the greatest benefit for the human body is a cylindrical vegetable.

Boiled beets: useful properties and contraindications

useful properties after heat treatment. The secret is that the mineral salts and B vitamins present in beets are heat stable.

The root vegetable contains a large amount of natural antioxidants (including lutein) and methylated derivatives of amino acids, in particular, betaine, which regulates fat metabolism, preventing hepatic obesity. It is a natural anti-asthma agent that supports the health of the respiratory and cardiovascular systems. Vegetable increases the body's endurance, prevents hormonal imbalance.

The benefits of boiled beets are as follows:

  • increases the protective functions of the body, improves its ability to resist pathogenic bacteria and microbes;
  • supplies the body with vitamins A, C, B9, macro- and microelements: sodium, calcium, chlorine, phosphorus, iron;
  • supports the health of the organs of vision: prevents the appearance of cataracts, macular degeneration;
  • cleanses the body, relieves constipation.
  • improves metabolism, participates in the formation of blood cells;
  • increases sexual activity in men;
  • reduces menstrual pain in women;
  • lowers the level of homocysteine, the excess of which adversely affects the condition of the blood vessels;
  • gives vitality to the body.

Boiled beets are used to prepare various dishes, for example, salads with the addition of prunes and nuts. They are seasoned with lemon juice, sour cream, vegetable oil.

Boiled beets interfere with the full absorption of calcium. Therefore, people with a predisposition to osteoporosis should stop eating foods containingroot crop. In addition, it is worth considering that the glycemic index of a boiled vegetable is twice as high as that of a raw one, and equals 65. After consumption, it causes a sharp jump in blood sugar, which quickly fills fat cells. As a result, patients with diabetes mellitus and everyone who is going to lose weight should abandon the boiled product in favor of the raw one.

Beetroot juice

runny nose relieves sore throat;

  • removes uric acid, toxins;
  • normalizes irregular menstrual cycle;
  • improves kidney and liver function;
  • prevents the formation of blood clots, the development of anemia;
  • removes stones from the gallbladder, kidneys (except for oxaluric ones);
  • improves hearing, vision;
  • helps with thrombophilia;
  • relieves insomnia;
  • increases the content of erythrocytes in the blood;
  • stimulates the lymphatic system;
  • improves complexion;
  • is useful in hypothyroidism.
  • The effect of beetroot juice on the human body is so great that uncontrolled intake can cause fever of the body, rapid heartbeat, numbness of the vocal cords. In this regard, it is recommended to use it in combination with carrot, cucumber, apple, pumpkin or celery juice.

    Start drinking freshly squeezed beetroot juice with 50 ml diluted with 200 ml of water.

    Pure beetroot juice can only be consumed after it has been infused for two hours. If you take it immediately after pressing, you may experience nausea, headaches, and indigestion.

    Remember: freshly squeezed juices cannot be stored - they must be drunk within 12 hours of preparation. The longer the drink is infused, the more it loses nutrients.

    Healthy fresh vegetable juices

    Mixes of fresh juices of beetroot and other vegetables and fruits:

    1. Beetroot -carrot-apple - the most useful combination. Fresh juices are mixed in the ratio 1:1:1. Drinking a vitamin drink will help to avoid a heart attack, stomach ulcers, lung cancer, hypertension, abnormalities in the pancreas. To prepare it, peel the ingredients, cut them and puree them in a blender, leave to brew for two hours. The recommended course of treatment is three months.
    2. Beet-orange-carrot. The ratio of ingredients is 0.5:2:1, respectively. This combination reveals the beneficial properties and taste of each of the products. Vitamin C, which is part of orange, promotes the absorption of iron concentrated in beet pulp. And carrots are a natural source of beta-carotene, a natural antioxidant. Peel all ingredients, beat with a blender, add 50 ml of water. Fresh is recommended to drink in between meals.
    3. Beet-cranberry with honey. This combination cleanses the kidneys and liver, relieves spasms of blood vessels, reduces pressure, weakens, and has a calming effect. The ratio of cranberry and beet juice is 1:2. To enhance the positive effect on the body, add 15 ml of honey to the vitamin composition. Dilute the juice with 50 ml of water before taking.
    4. Beet-kefir. It is a fat-burning drink that contains a minimum of calories and a maximum of nutrients. Sour milk and vegetable cocktail reduces appetite, has a diuretic and laxative effect, cleanses the liver, intestines, improves metabolic processes. The ratio of raw beets and biokefir 1% is 1:1. If desired, 100 ml of mineral water can be added to the drink.

    It is recommended to take 150–200 ml of fresh juice several times a day. The course of treatment depends on the etiology of the disease and varies from 30 to 120 days.

    Useful combinations of freshly squeezed juices:

    1. To reduce hangover, recuperate after illness: orange + carrot + beetroot + apple.
    2. For weight loss: grapefruit + cucumber + plum + beet + carrot + celery.
    3. To increase hemoglobin, eliminate anemia: carrots + beets
    4. To improve performance: spinach + apple + dill + beets + carrots.
    5. To improve the digestion of food: carrot + apple + beetroot + ginger.
    6. For heartburn: carrot + celery + cucumber + beetroot + cabbage + banana.
    7. To cleanse the liver: pineapple + lime + beets + carrots.
    8. To soften stones: radish + beet.
    9. For cleaning the gallbladder: celery + carrot + cherry + beetroot + cucumber + radish.
    10. To improve the functioning of the liver: radish + carrot + beetroot.
    11. To restore strength to cancer patients: beets + potatoes + apples + carrots.

    Remember, because of the high concentration of nutrients, freshly squeezed juices have the strongest effect.Therefore, they should be taken in doses, not more than 200 ml at a time, otherwise, instead of a positive effect, you can harm your health by exacerbating chronic diseases of the digestive and excretory systems.

    Use in folk medicine

    Beet roots have medicinal properties:improve blood composition, fight ulcers and tumors, high blood pressure, scurvy, liver disease, constipation, anemia, varicose veins, thrombophlebitis.

    Folk recipes for eliminating ailments:

    1. From the common cold. Mix 50 ml of freshly squeezed beetroot juice with 25 ml of honey. With the resulting composition, instill 2-3 drops in each nostril several times a day.
    2. In oncology. During the day, you need to drink half a glass of beetroot juice several times a day 15 minutes before meals.
    3. In cholelithiasis. Grate beet roots, fill them with water so that the liquid covers the pulp of the vegetable, put on fire. Boil the broth until thickened. Strain the finished syrup, take 100 ml daily 30 minutes before meals several times a day.
    4. At elevated pressure. Dilute beetroot juice with honey in a 1:1 ratio. Vitamin drink drink half a glass 3-4 times a day before meals.
    5. With angina. Add 15 ml apple cider vinegar to 200 ml of beet juice. Gargle with the resulting mixture (taking a sip) 3-4 times a day for five days until the symptoms disappear.
    6. For bowel cleansing. To make a beetroot drink, peel and cut into large slices five root vegetables (medium sizes), pour them with 3 liters of warm water. Insist for a day, then add 50 ml of honey to the beets, stir until dissolved, strain. In addition to cleansing the intestines and removing toxins from the body, this remedy speeds up metabolism, the breakdown of fats, quenches excessive appetite, and promotes weight loss.
    7. With anemia. Mix equal amounts of juices from raw beets, carrots and radishes. Take 15 ml before meals three times a day. It is recommended to store the tincture in a dark glass bottle, not corked.

    Beetroot has extraordinary benefits during pregnancy. Vitamins, macro- and microelements, which are part of the root crop, contribute to the formation of a healthy nervous system of the baby. In addition, she effectively fights constipation, which often occurs in women during the period of bearing a baby. Due to the abundance of iron, the crimson vegetable helps restore blood loss, counteracts the development of anemia in a woman after childbirth.

    Culinary uses

    Beets are very popular among cooks. On the basis of the root crop, first courses are prepared (borscht, beetroot, botvinya, okroshka), salads (vinaigrette, herring under a fur coat), vegetable casseroles. Today, restaurants serve original exotic beetroot dishes: sorbet, ice cream, marmalade. This is not only a waste-free product, but also very useful.

    Ways to cook beets:

    1. Cooking. The duration of heat treatment depends on the size of the root crop and is approximately 1-2 hours. Beets will cook much faster if you put them in a pot of boiling water rather than cold water.
    2. For a couple. To preserve vitamins and minerals during cooking, do not peel the vegetable and do not cut off the tails. It is enough to wash the beets well, put them in a double boiler and set the timer for about 40 minutes.
    3. Frying. Peel the skin of the fruit, cut into strips, put in a pan. To prevent the beets from burning, add oil, add a little water regularly, stir occasionally. Roasting a vegetable takes about 15 minutes.
    4. Extinguishing. Remove the peel from the beets, grate the vegetable. Place the resulting "shavings" in a cauldron, cover with a lid, simmer over medium heat for 20 minutes.

    Beets go well with greens, starchy foods (zucchini, corn, potatoes, radishes, rutabaga, beans ), proteins (meat, fish), fats (oil). However, it is not recommended to use it with confectionery and sugar, since this combination causes fermentation in the intestines.

    All vegetables should not be combined with milk as this will lead to indigestion.

    Beetroot diet for weight loss

    The root crop contains betaine, which normalizes fat metabolism, cleanses the body of toxins, regulates liver function, fights extra pounds. In addition, the substance improves the absorption of protein foods, as a result of which the feeling of fullness comes faster. Under the influence of sunlight and high temperatures, betaine is destroyed, so beets are recommended to be consumed raw. From it you can prepare vitamin salads, fresh juices, smoothies. The darker the color of the root, the more betaine it contains.

    To get rid of a few pounds, spend beet fasting days once a week. During the day, it is allowed to use only this root crop (raw or boiled) in an amount of up to 2 kg and drink 2-3 liters of non-carbonated purified water.

    If you need to eliminate the extra 5 kg, it is recommended to pay attention to the beetroot mono-diet for up to 10 days.

    Rules for weight loss:

    1. Eat baked or boiled beets daily in six doses, no more than 2 kg of vegetable per day.
    2. For a variety of diet, prepare a salad: grate a raw root vegetable, add 5 ml of olive oil (lemon juice). Vegetables must not be salted. To improve the taste, add spices to the salad that stimulate fat burning: ginger, cardamom, cinnamon, cayenne or black pepper, anise, turmeric, horseradish. However, do not abuse them, so as not to cause irritation.mucous membrane of the stomach.
    3. Drink more liquids: green tea, still water, fresh juices from grapefruit, apple, carrot, beet kvass.

    To maintain the result, exit the diet carefully: increase the number of calories gradually, limit the consumption of confectionery and flour products, alcoholic beverages, fatty sausages and meat. Focus on fruits, vegetables and herbs.

    Use in cosmetology

    Beetroot extract is a miraculous ingredient with high antioxidant activity. It is suitable for all skin types and is useful at any age. The root crop is present in cosmetics as a coloring agent (as part of blush), a cooling agent, and an antioxidant. Beetroot extract has an anti-inflammatory and astringent effect, is used to care for irritated, problematic skin prone to acne.

    Crimson root extract is known to strengthen the structure of capillaries, maintain hydration for 8 hours at the proper level, combat flaking of the scalp (dandruff), and stimulate hair growth. In addition, beets are used for decorative purposes: vegetable juice is used to color decorative cosmetics products, handmade soaps.

    Who can use the root vegetable

    Beets can help people with enlarged pores, skin defects (acne, age spots), suffering from rosacea or rosacea.

    Beauty recipes:

    1. Anti-inflammatory mask. Used for problematic skin. Grate raw potatoes on a fine grater, mix with freshly squeezed juice of one beetroot, add flour until the consistency of thick sour cream is obtained. Apply the mask on cleansed face for 15 minutes. After that, rinse off the product with cool water with the addition of milk, observing a ratio of 1: 1.
    2. Nourishing mask. Used to improve the condition of dry skin. Mix an egg yolk with 15 g of grated boiled beets. Spread the mask over your face, leave for 30 minutes, rinse with warm water.
    3. Scrub. Cleanses the skin from dead skin particles. Combine 45 g of oatmeal with 15 g of pre-shredded fresh beet pulp. Apply the resulting scrub on your face, massage, leave for 10 minutes, then rinse with warm water. Apply a moisturizer to soothe your skin.
    4. Acne lotion. Boil the beets, remove from the pan (you will not need it). In the water in which the root crop (500 ml) was boiled, add 15 ml of apple cider vinegar. Wipe your face with the resulting lotion in the morning.
    5. Anti-dandruff mask. Peel the raw beets from the peel, grate. Distribute the resulting slurry along the entire length of the hair. Wrap your hair with plastic wrapwith which you tie a towel. Keep the mask on your hair for 35 minutes, then rinse with warm water. To eliminate dandruff, the procedure should be performed twice a week for three months.

    Conclusion

    Beet is an unpretentious plant of the Amaranth family. The root crop is a good source of ascorbic and folic acids, copper, phosphorus. The leaves contain a lot of retinol. Beetroot improves digestion, metabolism, has a tonic effect, is involved in the production of hemoglobin.

    Due to its rich chemical composition and medicinal properties, the root crop is widely used in cosmetology and folk medicine. This product is also popular in cooking: salads, first courses and even desserts are prepared on its basis. In addition, the beet is of great industrial importance: sugar is extracted from it.

    Sources
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    3. My healthy diet. - Calorie "Beets, boiled." Chemical composition and nutritional value.
    4. My healthy diet. - Calorie "Beets". Chemical composition and nutritional value.
    5. Yuri Konstantinov. - Medicinal roots. Radishes, beets, turnips, carrots, radishes.
    6. Russian newspaper. – Beetroot juice protects against hypertension and cancer.
    7. Olga Shelest. - Beets heal. We strengthen and cleanse the body.
    8. Russian farmer. - Sweet and healthy beets. Is it possible to eat a vegetable every day, what is the norm and what threatens to exceed it.
    9. Nutrition according to Montignac. – Table of the glycemic load of some foods.
    10. Komsomolskaya Pravda. - Beetroot juice: benefits and harms to the body.
    11. Interfax-West. - Cleansing and treatment of the body: who is useful and who is contraindicated in beet juice.