Cashew

Cashew is an edible nut-shaped fruit that grows on an evergreen tree of the Sumach family. This product has an exquisite sweetish-creamy taste, which is why it is widely used in cooking.

Interestingly, this is the only nut in the world that ripens on the outside of the fruit. But without fail, cashews undergo heat treatment, since cardol (caustic compound) is contained between the shell and the shell, where it is located. In contact with the skin, the substance causes dermatological problems (blister burns).

However, cashews are a source of nutrients: monounsaturated fats, phytosterols, vitamins, mineral salts, esters and carboxylic acids. With regular use (30 g per day), the fruits improve lipid metabolism, increase female libido, strengthen the heart muscle, accelerate the production of sex hormones, and stabilize the psycho-emotional background.

Botanical description

The cashew nut grows on a tropical evergreen tree called "Western Anacardium". Other names for the plant are "kazhu", "kazhu" and "Indian walnut". Its average height varies from 12 to 15 m, although in the wild it can reach up to 30 m. The trees are characterized by a lush spreading crown that leans low to the ground. Interestingly, the branches of some types of anacardium (in particular "Pirangi") are able to "take root" when they are close to moist soil. At the same time, not far from the "mother" culture, new sprouts appear, giving young shoots.

Cashew leaves are dense, elliptical, and bright green in color. The length of the plates is 4-20 cm, width - 2-12 cm.

The culture blooms from 1 to 3 times a year, depending on the variety and growing conditions. The corollas of the anacardium are yellowish-pink, consisting of five pointed petals (7-15 cm long). In place of fading flowers, edible ovaries appear, called "cashew apples". They are bright yellow or orange-red. The pulp of "cashew apples" is juicy fleshy with an aromatic sweet and sour astringent taste. In tropical countries, compotes, jams, smoothies, jellies and juices are prepared on their basis. However, these ovaries are "pseudo-fruits", since they are an overgrown receptacle. The true acajou nuts are located at the very end of the stalk. From above they are covered with a green shell containing phenolic resin, and inside -dense rough shell, under which the edible kernel is hidden. The average weight of one nut is 1.5 g. The yield of this crop is 780 kg per 1 ha.

Akajou's natural habitat is Brazil. Along with this, the plant is cultivated in more than 30 tropical countries of the world: South America, West Africa, Southeast Asia. The largest exporters of the product: Vietnam, India, Malaysia, Nigeria, Brazil, Thailand, Indonesia, Philippines, Azerbaijan.

Chemical composition

Cashew - high-calorie product, the nutritional value of which is 553 kcal. The energy ratio B:L:U is 12%: 73%: 15%.

Cashew fruits have tonic, antibacterial and antiseptic properties. They are used to treat metabolic disorders, dystrophy, psoriasis and anemia.

Table No. 1 "Nutritional value of cashew fruits"
Components Content per 100 g of the product, grams
Fats 43.85
Carbs 26.89
Proteins 18.22
Water 5.2
Dietary fiber 3.3
Ash 2.54
Table No. 2 "Chemical composition of cashew fruits"
Name Nutrient content in 100 g of fresh fruits, milligrams
Vitamins
Niacin (B3) 1.06
Tocopherol (E) 0.9
Pantothenic acid (B5) 0.86
Pyridoxine (B6) 0.42
Thiamine (B1) 0.42
Ascorbic acid (C) 0.5
Riboflavin (B2) 0.06
Phylloquinones (K) 0.034
Folates (B9) 0.025
Retinol (A) 0.022
Macronutrients
Potassium 660
Phosphorus 593
Magnesium 292
Calcium 37
Sodium 12
Trace elements
Iron 6.68
Zinc 5.78
Copper 2.19
Manganese 1.66
Selenium 0.012
​​ (2 24) 0.94
Table No. 3 "Amino acid composition of cashew fruits"
Name Content of protein structures in 100 g of nuts, grams
Essential amino acids
Arginine 2.13
Leucine 1.47
Valine 1.09
Phenylalanine 0.95
Lysine 0.93
Isoleucine 0.79
Threonine 0.69
Histidine 0.46
Methionine 0.36
Tryptophan 0.29
Non-essential amino acids
Glutamic acid 4.51
Aspartic acid 1.78
Serine 1.08
Glycine
Alanine 0.84
Proline 0.81
Tyrosine 0.51
Cysteine 0.39

, tannins, phenolic resins, terpenes, carboxylic acids.

Interestingly, in Africa, the walnut is used as a means for tattooing, Mexico - bleaching freckles, in Haiti - removing warts, Venezuela - treating wounds, Peru - treating the throat, Brazil - increasing potency, fight against diarrhea, diabetes and asthma.

Usefulproperties

Given that more than 70% of the lipid composition of cashews is unsaturated fatty acids, cajou nuts are excellent suppliers of “fuel” to the human body. In addition, they support the vital activity of cells, increase the level of skin moisture, normalize cholesterol metabolism, participate in the construction of enzymes and hormones, and protect internal organs from mechanical injuries. Along with this, the usefulness of nuts is due to the rich amino acid and vitamin-mineral composition.

Effects of consumption of cashew fruits:

  1. Improve the functional state of the brain, increase mental performance, stress resistance.
  2. Accelerate the healing of erosions, ulcers and open wounds.
  3. Lower body temperature (acting as a coolant).
  4. Strengthen the heart muscle.
  5. Normalize lipid metabolism, accelerate metabolic processes.
  6. Improve blood rheology.
  7. Activate energy exchange in tissues.
  8. Accelerate the elimination of excess fluid from the body.
  9. Promote weight loss (by stimulating fat burning).
  10. Reduce gum bleeding, strengthen tooth enamel.
  11. Stimulates the production of hormones and digestive enzymes.
  12. Increase vitality.
  13. Reduce the permeability of the capillary wall.
  14. Stimulate the utilization of metabolic products, natural antiviral immunity, block the reproduction of pathogenic bacteria.
  15. Contribute to the proper formation of feces.
  16. Improve the appearance of nails and hair, eliminate acne.

Along with this, cashew has antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, diuretic, hypotensive, astringent, tonic and antiseptic effects.

It is advisable to consume Indian walnut for hypothyroidism, diabetes mellitus, anemia, hypertension, bronchitis, psoriasis, depression, influenza, anxiety, dystrophy, stress, toothache, hypercholesterolemia. The optimal daily dose is 30 grams.

However, despite the usefulness of the product, there are contraindications to its consumption.

Cashew is restricted for:

  • kidney or bladder stones;
  • pancreatitis;
  • stomach ulcer;
  • obesity;
  • migraines;
  • predisposition to allergic reactions.

In addition, fresh fruits contain phenolic resin, which is toxic to the human body. Therefore, when visiting tropical countries, you should not pick fruits fromtree or try to remove the nuts from the shell. Skin contact with any parts of a fresh plant, including bark and leaves, may cause allergic reactions (dermatitis, laryngeal edema, asthma attacks).

Remember, the consumption of fresh cashew nuts is fraught with severe poisoning, and in severe cases, death. In this regard, only purchased peeled fruits that have undergone a special heat treatment cycle (in production) are used for food.

Use in cosmetology

Cold-pressed cashew kernel oil is used to maintain beauty. It is great for dry, combination and problem skin care.

Effects of the use of walnut concentrate:

  1. Accelerates the healing of wounds and microcracks on the skin.
  2. Dries up acne.
  3. Smoothes the network of fine lines.
  4. Protects the dermis from adverse environmental factors (sun, wind, frost).
  5. Eliminates peeling, irritation and burns of the skin.
  6. Improves complexion.
  7. Stimulates hair growth.
  8. Reduces brittleness of nail plates.
  9. Increases the elasticity of rough feet, softens corns and calluses.

Cashew fruit concentrate is used both in pure form and in combination with fatty or essential oils. In addition, massage mixtures, nourishing masks, emollient creams, antifungal agents, anti-inflammatory compounds, anti-aging emulsions and regenerating balms are created on its basis.

Recipes

Nourishing hair mask

) and 10 ml cashew butter. The resulting mixture is applied to the washed head (wet), lightly massaging the scalp. The mask is kept on the head for no more than 15 minutes. With regular use of the composition, the hydrolipidic balance of the skin is normalized and hair follicles are strengthened.

Emollient for hands

Cajou nutritional extract is used both in pure form and in combination with transport oils (olive, jojoba, peach kernels, wheat germ). To strengthen the nail fold and eliminate peeling, the mixture is applied to wet skin at least 2 times a day.

Relaxing body bath

To eliminate insomnia, nervousness and fatigue, mix 2 drops each of geranium, chamomile and lavender esters with 15 ml of cashew oil (refractory). This mixture is poured into a warm liquid (38 degrees), after which the water is thoroughly mixed by hand. Durationtaking a therapeutic bath - 10-15 minutes.

Anti-inflammatory face masks

To “fight” problem skin (acne, peeling, pimples), 10 ml of cashew and jojoba oils are mixed. Then camphor and eucalyptus ether are added dropwise to this mixture. In the resulting composition, moisten a napkin and apply for 15 minutes on the problematic skin.

Remember, before the procedure, the dermis should be thoroughly washed with a cleanser.

Sun Burn Mix

Combine 15 ml of nut fat with 2 drops of rose or lavender essential oil. Lubricate the affected areas of the body with the resulting product four times a day.

In addition, cashew oil is used to treat warts, blisters, psoriasis and eczema (in combination with lavender, lemon balm and tea tree esters)

Growing at home

Despite the fact that cashews are tropical plants, they are successfully cultivated in the mid-latitude zone. At the same time, it is easy for a tree to create a comfortable microclimate at home.

Pre-treatment of seeds

For planting, it is better to use purchased material from proven manufacturers. Before germination, the seeds are kept for two days in warm water. Given that unpeeled nuts contain toxic substances, after 7-10 hours the liquid acquires an inky blue color. To remove harmful toxins, you should change the source water at least 2 times a day.

It is important to wear rubber gloves when handling the seeds, as contact of the poison with the skin causes a painful burn.

Preparation of the substrate

Loose soil rich in minerals is used to ensure good seed germination. The optimal volume of containers is 1 liter. In this case, the pallets are pre-filled with pebbles (to maintain a constant level of humidity).

Planting seeds

The soaked cashews are alternately placed in the prepared substrate (one per pot). After that, the containers are exposed to a well-lit place. After 20 days, the seedlings give the first sprouts.

Care of seedlings

For the formation of a full-fledged plant, it is important to maintain a high humidity of the root layer of the soil, as well as spray the above-ground part of the seedling 2 times a day and add water to the pallets with pebbles. To give the tree a beautiful shape in the first year of "life", it is pruned. A young plant is fed 6 months after planting with universal fertilizers for fruit-bearing crops (every 30 days).

With proper care, Anacardiums bloom at 3-4 years of age. However, in order to obtain fruitovaries should sometimes resort to artificial pollination.

Uses in the food industry

For culinary purposes, these fruits are used as "pseudo-fruits" as well as seeds of the nut plant. Considering that "cashew apples" are a perishable product, it is possible to eat them only in tropical countries where the culture grows. Fragrant jams, preserves, juices, compotes, jellies and spirits are prepared from fresh "pseudo-fruits". For example, in India, you can try the famous Fenny liqueur, made from the fermented nectar of acajou apples. In America, this is the Cajuina drink, created on the basis of freshly squeezed juice.

However, the real popularity of the cashew was due to its nutritious and appetizing seeds. True cashew fruits have a pleasant sweetish taste with subtle notes of butter. Therefore, cashews go well with confectionery, desserts, pastries, fruit salads, sour-milk drinks and fish dishes. In addition, in Asian countries, they are added to vegetable side dishes, boiled rice and curry sauces. And to enhance the flavor, the product is fried in olive or butter.

Interestingly, acajou seeds contain less fat than walnut kernels, peanuts, almonds or pecans. In view of this, cashews are used in a vegetarian menu as a vegetable source of protein.

When choosing fruits, it is better to give preference to whole kernels of a light shade. At room temperature, fresh nuts will last up to 1 month (in an airtight container). In the refrigerator, the shelf life of raw materials increases to 6 months, and in the freezer up to 1 year.

Also, a refractory oil is obtained from the fruit of the cashew, which is excellent for frying, stewing and baking (due to the high concentration of monounsaturated acids).

Recipes

Super Quick Snowball Dessert

Ingredients:

Cooking scheme:

  1. Grind cottage cheese with sugar.
  2. Combine the resulting mixture with sour cream, vanilla and cinnamon.
  3. Place curd mass for 20 minutes in the refrigerator compartment.
  4. Grind nuts with a blender or food processor.
  5. Form “balls” from the curd mass, placing a pre-washed grape inside each. After this cookierolled in walnut crumbs.
  6. Remove the dessert for 5 minutes in the refrigerator.

Before serving, the dessert is topped with cranberry or strawberry jam.

Energy bars

Components:

  • dates - 300 g;
  • cashew nuts - 250 g;
  • oatmeal (extra) - 150 g;
  • apple - 1 pc;
  • maple syrup - 70 ml;
  • cinnamon (ground) - 3 g.) Grind the ingredients: coarsely chop the dates and cashews, grate the apple.
  • Combine nut-fruit mixture with oatmeal, cinnamon and maple syrup. Leave the mass for 15 minutes.
  • Grease a baking dish with butter.
  • Transfer the resulting mixture to a baking sheet, flatten with your hands.
  • Cover the mass with parchment paper and place in the oven (for 30 minutes).
  • Cut the finished bars into portions.
  • Dessert is served directly from the refrigerator (to keep the structure firm).

    Candy "Coconut Paradise"

    Components: