Tuberculosis is a dangerous infectious disease that should be treated immediately. The causes and symptoms of tuberculosis are what you should pay attention to first.
There are a huge number of all kinds of viruses and infections that medicine cannot defeat. Medicines and new treatments are being invented, but it is currently impossible to completely stop some bacteria. One such disease is tuberculosis. They learned to treat him a long time ago, but the doctors did not succeed in completely getting rid of the disease. Anyone can get sick, regardless of gender, age and living conditions. The main danger of tuberculosis is that it is difficult to detect in the early stages. Consider the etiology and mechanism of this disease.
Etiology of the disease
Tuberculosis is caused by mycobacteria (bacteria of the genus Mycobacterium). In total, there are 74 species of these bacteria. They are distributed and transported in water, soil, animals and humans. The causative agent of the disease is Koch's wand, often of the human type. The survivability of Koch's sticks in the ground is up to 40 years.
Due to incorrect or poor-quality treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis, mycobacteria can show a protective reaction to drugs aimed at their destruction. They can also be modified, which complicates further diagnosis of the disease. If the patient stops treatment before all bacteria are dead, the remaining microorganisms can mutate and be transmitted to other people in an unstable form.
Tuberculosis, which is caused by different types of mycobacteria, is different. The main species sign of mycobacteria of the disease is pathogenicity. Pathogenicity itself manifests itself in virulence (degree of pathogenicity), which varies significantly depending on environmental factors. It can also manifest itself in different ways depending on the state of the macroorganism that is infected with the bacterium.
Ways of infection
The main source of human infection with mycobacteria is people with an open form of tuberculosis, that is, those people who excrete Koch's bacilli into the external environment. A sick person, along with sputum when sneezing, coughing, or simply talking, releases millions of bacteria that spread in the air within a radius of two to six meters, and then settle on the floor and objects, while all mycobacteria can remain viable for a long time. Contact infection occurs through kissing, through handkerchiefs of an infected person, clothes, dishes, bedding and all things that could get sputum. You can also get tuberculosis from animals, both through direct contact with them, and by eating products ( milk, meat).
In addition, there are cases of infection through the conjunctiva of the human eye. Infection through the skin is quite rare. Most often, cases are described when milkmaids get sick from sick cows when microbes penetrate through damaged skin of the hands. There is a possibility of contracting the disease in utero when the placenta is infected during childbirth, but this route of infection is quite rare.
Factors affecting disease progression
Tuberculosis often develops if certain factors contribute to it. The main reasons for the development of the disease are:
- weakened immunity;
- susceptibility to infections and colds;
- presence of chronic diseases;
- disruption of the endocrine system.
Additional factors include unfavorable social and living conditions, non-compliance with elementary hygiene standards. It is important to remember that a long stay in the same room with an infected person significantly increases the chance of infection entering the body and its development. Therefore, it is necessary to carry out regular thorough cleaning in any room, as well as to ventilate all rooms. Another additional factor is congenital pathologies, when the human body is more susceptible to viruses and infections from the moment of birth.
It should be noted that alcohol consumption, smoking, constant stress and nutritional deficiencies are also contributing factors to the development of the disease.
Causes of lung disease
Pulmonary tuberculosis is not a hereditary disease. In general, completely healthy children are born to sick parents. If parents ignore the disease and do not undergo treatment, then the child has a high probability of developing the disease. Most often, the tuberculosis bacterium is transmitted by airborne droplets from one person to another. When a sick person begins to cough, sputum gets into the air and settles on household items. At the same time, in dried sputum, microbes remain viable for a long time. The main way tuberculosis bacteria enter the human body is through the lungs.
Primary pulmonary tuberculosis occurs when a healthy person is infected with mycobacterium for the first time. Clinical characteristics of forms of pulmonary tuberculosis have significant differences. If there is the slightest focus where Koch's wand has found its place, then the disease can manifest itself in different ways.
The secondary form (infiltrative tuberculosis) can develop when the disease is reactivated from the primary focus. With focal pulmonary tuberculosis, clinical manifestations can be completely different and can affect any human organ.
The appearance of extrapulmonary tuberculosis
Extrapulmonary tuberculosis occurs with prolonged diseases of other human organs. These are diseases that cannot be cured. To make an accurate diagnosis, the patient is referred for a consultation with a phthisiatrician and undergoes a number of necessary tests.
Extrapulmonary TB is curable with timely and correct treatment, which must be strictly under medical supervision.
Tuberculosis of the nervous system occurs when Koch's bacillus enters the vessels of the brain. When infected, the blood supply to the brain is disrupted, intracranial pressure rises, and cerebral edema is possible. The person becomes more irritable than usual, there is constant fatigue, headaches are present.
The spine and pelvis are the most commonly affected by bacteria. If the inflammatory process has not gone beyond the bone, then a person may experience slight pain. If tuberculosis spreads to the joint, then the person may feel severe constant pain and feel limited in movement.
Affected bone becomes very brittle, and this greatly increases the risk of fracture even with the slightest damage.
Symptoms of damage to the kidneys, genital organs (uterus, ovaries, testicles) and urinary tract are very similar to symptoms of other diseases of the genitourinary system, so the diagnosis urologist, gynecologist and nephrologist together with a phthisiatrician.
Skin lesion often occurs when a person first becomes infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis. A person changes the color and structure of the skin, purulent wounds appear, subcutaneous lymph nodes increase.
Infection of the gastrointestinal tract
The small intestine and caecum are also frequently affected. The disease can develop after eating foods that have been contaminated with tuberculosis pathogens, such as dairy products.
In the early stages of tuberculosis, with damage to the lymphatic system, a moderate inflammatory change in the lymph nodes is observed. It proceeds without pain and does not cause an increase in body temperature. With the progress of the disease, lymph nodes are affected by a purulent process, fistulas develop. This is what poses an epidemiological danger to healthy people.
Psychosomatics of infection
Tuberculosis is one of the most dangerous diseases of mankind. Statistics forced to pay attention to the psychosomatics of this disease. Despite all kinds of examinations and preventive measures, the percentage of morbidity has decreased by only 5-10 percent. Psychologists and psychotherapists have come to the conclusion that negative emotions and constant stress provoke the development of tuberculosis. People do not want to perceive the realities of the world, do not allow themselves to breathe deeply and enjoy life.
Causes of relapses
The risk of relapses is always present, so it is important to constantly strengthen the immune system and, if necessary, take a course against relapse. Most often, relapses of tuberculosis occur with insufficient treatment or when the disease is almost asymptomatic.
Is tuberculosis inherited? This question worries almost every person associated with this disease. It is genetically possible to transmit a tendency to develop tuberculosis and organ damage. In this case, when the organism is infected with mycobacteria, the closed form of tuberculosis will quickly develop into an open one.
Genetic predisposition manifests itself in every person from the very beginning of life and has certain symptoms: morbidity, constant malaise, and so on.
Tuberculosis is not inherited, except for those people who have a genetic predisposition to this disease. If one of the parents has them, then there is a chance that the child will inherit them. The same applies to genes that, on the contrary, are resistant to tuberculosis. In this case, the disease does not threaten the child.
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