The diet of modern man is far from ideal. An excess of easily digestible carbohydrates, fast food and snacks, alcohol, flavor enhancers and preservatives combined with a lack of cereals, fruits and vegetables lead to weight gain, metabolic disorders and problems with the gastrointestinal tract. At the same time, many of us do not think about the fact that most bad habits "come from childhood." And vicious eating habits are no exception.
Proper nutrition in childhood is the key to the absence of health problems in the future. Pediatricians have proven that adipose tissue cells, which provide energy balance, are formed mainly during the first years of life. Therefore, one of the main prerequisites for future obesity is an inadequately balanced diet in childhood.
In addition, the child's diet becomes a kind of "foundation" for his full life, physical and mental development, immunity support. Therefore, nutrition in childhood should be as thoughtful as possible, as well as provide the body with a sufficient amount of all the necessary substances, minerals and vitamins.
Baby food: rules and features
When planning a child's diet, several general rules should be taken into account. They are the basis of the most effective diet for children.
First of all, do not forget that the need for nutrients in a growing body is an order of magnitude higher than in adults, so the basis of baby food should be natural products. In addition, the metabolic rate in children is one and a half to two times higher than in adults.
Therefore, in order for the baby to grow, develop mentally and physically, build muscle mass and fully use his potential, the energy value of his daily diet must be at least 10% higher than his energy costs.
Parents should take into account that children do not yet have the skills and motivations that would push them to make informed choices about healthy eating, therefore, it is the responsibility of adults to form healthy eating habits in children. Moreover, parents should by their own example instill in their children a love of healthy eating.
In addition, you should listen to the general recommendations of nutritionists:
- No coercion! You should not forcibly seat a child at the table just because the clock shows the “normal” time for lunch or dinner. No food will go for the future "to the accompaniment" of the hysteria and tears of the baby, who was torn away from the game.
- Don't "feed" a child when they are sick. During this period, all the forces of his body are aimed at fighting the disease, therefore force-feeding is prohibited. When forming the diet of a sick child, it should be guided solely by his appetite.
- Refuse to eat large and high-calorie foods in favor of fractional meals, that is, small portions five to six times a day.
- Protein foods should be included in a child's diet every day. At the same time, you should not get too carried away - an excess of proteins is just as dangerous as their deficiency.
- Dairy products should be given to children as a separate meal and not in combination with other foods.
Universal diet for children
What diet should be the basis of a child's diet? Gastroenterologists are convinced that the most versatile option that can be used to feed healthy children is table number 5.
This diet is usually used for diseases of the liver and pancreas, however, it provides sufficient calorie nutrition and normal levels of proteins and carbohydrates, with a limited content of fats and salts.
Table No. 5 provides for fractional meals 5-6 times a day, while long breaks between meals are not allowed and spicy, sour, canned and fried foods are prohibited.
When compiling the menu, you can use:
- Biscuits, homemade cakes in limited quantities. Fresh bread and puff pastries are prohibited.
- Vegetable soups, with the addition of cereals, borscht. Mushroom, meat and fish broths are excluded.
- Beef, chicken, turkey and rabbit meat boiled or baked. At the same time, duck meat and any offal are prohibited. In the diet of children, sausages and canned meat, both industrial and home-made, should also not be present.
- Boiled or baked fish. Smoked fish, salted fish and canned food should be excluded.
- Dairy products. At the same time, try not to buy yoghurts in stores, but cook them at home using sourdough. Sweet cereals with milk are allowed. At the same time, limit the presence in the diet of cream, full-fat milk and cheese.
- Steam omelet. Hard boiled eggs and scrambled eggs are prohibited.
- Raw, boiled and stewed vegetables. At the same time, we exclude fried, pickled and pickled vegetables from the diet.
- Compotes, jelly, juices from fresh fruits of not too acidic varieties. It is worth choosing those gifts of nature that are common in your area.
- Marshmallow, marmalade, nougat. We exclude chocolate from the diet.
So, for example, for breakfast, you can serve cottage cheese with fruit and tea with biscuits to your child. After two hours, offer the baby a baked apple. For lunch, cook vegetable soup, porridge and steam cutlets. The afternoon snack will consist of not too strong tea with sugar and biscuits. Finally, your child will have boiled potatoes with baked fish for dinner.
Diet for children with allergies
Children's allergies are a serious test for any family. Dermatitis and diathesis, conjunctivitis, allergic rhinitis, urticaria - all these manifestations of hypersensitivity to certain substances can seriously complicate the life of both the baby and his parents.
However, even a strict diet for allergies should be complete and varied. It should be borne in mind that all products are divided according to the degree of allergenicity.
So, among the products with the maximum allergenic potential, milk and eggs should be distinguished first of all. High probability of allergy to citrus fruits, strawberries, raspberries and strawberries. An undesirable reaction can be caused by wheat and rye, and chocolate, coffee, cocoa, honey and nuts are allergens.
Finally, sour-milk products, some types of meat ( horse meat, rabbit meat, lean pork and lamb ) have a minimum allergenic potential, and also turkey), green pears and apples, parsley and dill, and cabbage (both white and cauliflower ), zucchini, cucumbers and yellow cherries.
It is products with a low allergenic potential that should form the basis of the menu for allergies. There are many options for their preparation:
|Meat||Steam cutlets and meatballs, meatballs, stew|
|Kashi||Salty and sweet buckwheat and oatmeal porridge, with caution rice porridge|
|Vegetables||Vegetable stew, steamed vegetables, oven baked vegetables, vegetable cutlets|
|Fruits||Fresh (peeled) and baked seasonal fruits, compotes|
|Drinks||Weak green and white tea without flavorings and any flavorings, mineral water without gas, compotes and fruit drinks from permitted fruits|
Diet for rotavirus infection
Rotavirus infection more commonly known as "stomach flu" and "intestinal flu". This disease, which affects not only children, but also adults, but most often it occurs in children under the age of two years. The main manifestations of the disease are problems with the gastrointestinal tract (abdominal pain, diarrhea, vomiting ), as well as a sharp fever.
Unfortunately, today there are no special drugs that could effectively resist rotaviruses. The main treatment for this infection is diet. Only it helps to relieve inflammation in the intestines and save the baby from unpleasant symptoms.
There are a number of basic rules for feeding children with rotavirus infection:
- Avoid dehydration. As a rule, because of the specific taste, children are not very willing to drink rehydron, which allows them to compensate for the loss of fluid and minerals, and therefore prepare compote, weak tea, decoctions of chamomile or mint.
- Do not force the child to eat. If there is no appetite, let the baby only drink for now.
- Drink and eat often and in small portions so as not to induce vomiting.
Now a few words about what should be the diet for rotavirus infection in children. In the first two or three days, the main task is to normalize the stool. The diet of the baby should consist of cereals without the addition of oil (ricehas proven itself best), as well as stewed apples. After the severity of the symptoms subsides, other products can be introduced:
- Biscuits, homemade croutons (use only the pulp of a white loaf).
- Low-fat broths. It is better to cook vegetables. If you still cook broth on meat or fish, then only secondary is allowed.
- Soups with the addition of boiled cereals.
- Steamed omelet.
- Chicken or turkey steam cutlets, boiled fish ( hake, cod, pollock ).
- Mashed potatoes without oil.
On the third or fourth day, fermented milk products can be introduced into the child's menu, which will normalize the intestinal microflora.
Please note that during the acute course of the disease and during recovery, foods that can exacerbate gastrointestinal problems should be completely excluded from the diet.
Milk, fatty cheeses and cottage cheese, honey, sugar and any sweets, black bread, muffins, any fresh pastries, pasta, dumplings, dumplings, legumes in all forms, fatty meats are prohibited and fish, smoked meats, sausages, chocolate, cocoa, coffee, black tea.
A baby can be transferred to the general table only 10-14 days after the complete disappearance of the symptoms of the disease.
Diet for overweight children
Unfortunately, the problem of overweight is relevant not only for adults, but also for children. Extra pounds not only affect the health and well-being of the child, but also lead to the development of self-doubt and psychological complexes. Therefore, if the child began to gain weight, you should consult a pediatrician and review the diet.
It should be noted that children are strictly prohibited from using any "adult" diet. To normalize weight, you should simply exclude from the menu dishes that do not bring much benefit to a growing body: fried foods and fast food in all forms (hamburgers, hot dogs, french fries, crackers, chips, etc.); semi-finished products, sausages, sausages, sauces; factory confectionery.
Do not forget that the norms of eating behavior are laid in childhood. Therefore, the right diet for a child is critical to their health and well-being.