Fats

Fats are organic compounds composed of esters of glycerol, fatty acids and highly bioactive substances. Fats and fat-like substances are collectively referred to as lipids.

In the human body, most of the lipids are concentrated in the subcutaneous tissue and adipose tissue. These compounds are found in muscle tissues, liver, and brain. In plants, fats can be found in fruits and seeds. In the plant world, the so-called oilseeds are most saturated with lipids.

Difficulties in terminology

The important role of fats in the human body can be talked about for a long time, especially since there are many little-known and very entertaining facts. But first, it is important to understand the terminology so as not to get confused.

Lipid is the main term. They designate a substance with a fat-soluble molecule. Simply put, all fats, fatty acids, fat-soluble vitamins, and phospholipids in cell membranes are lipids.

Fatty acids are the building blocks of the body. They store energy, which the body converts into fuel when needed.

Triglycerides are lipids with a structure of three fatty acids and a glycerol molecule. All triglycerides are divided into 2 groups: saturated (found in meat and dairy products) and unsaturated acids (found in plant foods). From an anatomical point of view, the fat contained under the skin is also triglycerides.

Sterol (or sterol) is a subgroup of steroids that work on the principle of hormones. In the body they play the role of a structural part of the cells (there is in the membrane). Take part in metabolism, affect cholesterol levels: plant sterols block the absorption of “bad” cholesterol in the intestine.

Phospholipids - they play a structural role in the body. The cell membrane is made up of phospholipids. The performance of all cells depends on them. Most phospholipids are found in the membranes of liver, brain and heart cells. They are an important element of the sheath of the nerve trunks, are involved in blood coagulation and tissue regeneration.

Chemical and biological role

Speaking about the role of lipids for a living organism, it is first of all important to note that lipids are part of the cells of almost all types of tissues, and together with carbohydrates provide vital activity and energy metabolism. In addition, accumulating in the subcutaneous layers and around organs (in reasonable doses) they create a protective cushion: they provide protection from mechanical damage, provide thermal insulation.

Adipose tissue cells are a reservoir of nutrients that create the energy reserves of the body. By the way, the oxidation of 1 gram of fat gives the body 9 kilocalories. For comparison: when oxidizing a similar amount of proteins or carbohydrates, only 4 kilocalories of energy are produced.

Natural lipids are over 60 types of fatty acids with different properties. A fatty acid molecule is a special chain of interconnected carbon atoms surrounded by hydrogen atoms. The properties of fats depend on its length. The longer the chain, the more solid fats are formed. Liquid oils have a molecular structure with short strings of atoms.

The melting point of fats also depends on the molecule: the higher the molecular weight, the more difficult it is for fats to melt, and the worse they melt, the more difficult it is for the body to digest.

According to the quality of assimilation, fats are divided into three groups. Representatives of the first are absorbed by the body by 97-98%. They melt at temperatures below 36.6 degrees. If melting requires 37 degrees and above, such fats are absorbed in an amount of 90%. And only 70-80% will be able to assimilate if the substance needs at least 50-60 degrees Celsius to melt.

Classification of natural fats

Saturated fats:

  • ) butter, milk fats;
  • meat, lard, animal fats;
  • palm, coconut and cocoa bean oils.

Unsaturated fat:

  1. Monounsaturated:
    • olive oil;
    • peanut butter;
    • avocado;
    • olives;
    • poultry meat.
  2. Polyunsaturated:
    • fatty fish, fish oil;
    • linseed, rapeseed, sunflower, corn, cottonseed, soybean oils;
    • wheat germ oil, walnut;
    • nuts and seeds.

The difference between saturated and unsaturated fats is in the chemical structure, and therefore, their functions are also different.

Saturated fats are not as healthy as unsaturated fats. They negatively affect lipid metabolism, liver function and are believed by nutritionists to be the cause of atherosclerosis.

The highest concentration of unsaturated fats is found in vegetable oils. The most striking in their chemical and biological properties are polyunsaturated fatty acids. They are vital substances for the body and are included in the list of substances indispensable for humans. Another name is vitamin F, but in fact, the properties of fats differ from real vitamins. Contained in all vital organs: in the brain, heart, liver, reproductive organs. The high content of polyunsaturated fatty acids in the embryo, the body of a newborn child and in the composition of breast milk has also been proven. The most saturated vitamin F is fish oil.

The role of polyunsaturated fats

The functions of polyunsaturated fats:

  • contribute to the excretion of cholesterol from the body, which helps to slow down the course of atherosclerotic changes;
  • make the walls of blood vessels elastic and reduce their permeability;
  • contribute to the prevention of ischemia;
  • strengthen the protective functions of the body, develop resistance to various infections and ionizing radiation.

Polyunsaturated fat deficiency is one of the causes of coronary thrombosis.

According to the content of polyunsaturated fatty acids, lipids are divided into 3 groups:

  1. With high bioactivity. The content of polyunsaturated acids in them is 50-80%. It is enough to consume 20 g of fat to provide the body with the necessary substances. Sources: vegetable oils (corn, linseed, sunflower, hemp, soybean, cottonseed).
  2. With medium bioactivity. The content of polyunsaturated acids is below 50%. The daily requirement is contained in 50 g of lard, goose or chicken fat.
  3. With low bioactivity. This is butter and all kinds of milk fat, beef and mutton fat. They are not able to give the body the necessary norm of polyunsaturated fatty acids.

Triglycerides, phospholipids and sterols

All fats in the body are usually divided into 3 groups:

  • triglycerides;
  • phospholipids;
  • sterols.

Almost 100% of the fat in the human body is in the form of triglyceride, 95% of dietary fat is also stored in this structure.

A triglyceride is a substance whose molecule consists of 3 fatty acids and 1 molecule of glycerol. Depending on the presence or absence of hydrogen atoms in the composition, triglycerides are saturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated.

The main role in the body is to provide energy. They are predominantly stored in adipose tissue, but some triglycerides are present inside the cells. An excessive amount of this type of lipid in the cells leads to the development of obesity. An excess of triglycerides in the liver tissues is fraught with fatty degeneration of the organ, and a high content in muscle tissue accelerates the development of type 2 diabetes.

Phospholipids are present in only 5% of foods. They can dissolve in water and fats. Due to this property, they are able to easily move through cell membranes. The most famous phospholipid is lecithin, which is found in the liver, eggs, peanuts, wheat germ, and soybeans.

Phospholipids are necessary for the body to maintain the function of cell membranes. Violation in their structure leads to liver diseases, impaired blood clotting, liver, cardiovascular diseases.

Sterols are a group of substances that include cholesterol (high and low density lipoproteins), testosterone, cortisol, and vitamin D.

In the lipid group, there are 2 essential fatty acids for the human body that it cannot produce on its own. These are linoleic and linolenic acids.

Linoleic is better known as omega-6 fatty acid, while linolenic is better known as omega-3 fatty acid. It is best to look for them in seeds, nuts, oily sea fish.

Cholesterol

Cholesterol is an important component of most tissues in the human body. He takes part in the creation of new cells, hormones, intercellular membranes, in the absorption of vitamins, and accumulates energy. But the useful role of cholesterol is preserved only as long as its content does not go beyond the permissible limits (200-250 mg or 5.0 mmol / l). Exceeding the indicator increases the risk of developing cardiovascular accidents, obliterating atherosclerosis.

All cholesterol present in the body forms three groups:

  • high-density lipoprotein (“good” cholesterol);
  • low-density lipoprotein (“bad” cholesterol);
  • very low density lipoproteins (negative effect).

"Bad" sterol particles are formed from fats obtained from eating a lot of butter, very fatty meats, egg yolks and whole milk.

Every day, the body produces within 1 g of cholesterol. And almost all (0.8 g) is synthesized in the liver, and 0.2 g - in other cells. In addition, another half a gram of cholesterol comes from food. It is this dose received from the outside that it is important to try to regulate.

How to regulate cholesterol levels?

It is not difficult to adjust the balance of cholesterol if you know the rules of nutrition. Here are some tips to keep you healthy.

  1. Avoid refractory animal fats.
  2. Remove fried foods and French fries from the menu.
  3. Eat no more than 3 egg yolks per week.
  4. Give preference to lean meats.
  5. Reduce the amount of fat milk consumed.
  6. Two-thirds of the daily diet should consist of plant foods rich in fiber.
  7. Drink lots of green tea.
  8. Introduce polyunsaturated fats into the diet.
  9. Take nicotinic acid, calcium, vitamins E and C.
  10. Drink freshly squeezed juices ( beetroot, cucumber, carrot, apple, cabbage, orange, from celery ).
  11. Eat foods rich in phytosterols (plant sterols that control cholesterol levels): wheat germ, wild rice bran, sesame, sunflower seeds and pumpkins, pistachios, linseeds, almonds, pine, walnuts, avocado, olive oil.

Assimilation, exchange

Biologists conducted many experiments before they understood the principle of absorption of fats by the body. In the 1960s, Robert Wolpenheim and Fred Matson of Procter-and-Gamble determined that fats were not completely hydrolyzed in the gastrointestinal tract. That is, under the influence of water, only two molecules of triglyceride are split, the third remains unchanged.

Fats are first affected by an enzyme found in saliva. At the next stage, an enzyme produced by the pancreas is included in the work. After double processing, fat is transported in portions to the small intestine. And what is interesting: portions of lipids do not enter the intestine arbitrarily, but only after the corresponding signal that the small intestine “sends” to the stomach.

Nature has designed the human digestive system in such a way that fatty foods will not enter the intestines until it has processed the previous portion. This explains the feeling of fullness and "full stomach" cleared after overeating, in particular high-calorie foods. How the intestine transmits these smart signals to the stomach, biologists cannot yet explain. But the fact remains.

Bile and bile acids help the body to completely process fats. They break down lipids into tiny particles, which are again affected by the enzyme lipase. After the final hydrolysis, monoglycerides and fatty acids are formed in the body. They pass through the walls of the intestinal cells and already in an updated form (in the form of fat droplets coated with protein) enter the bloodstream to be transported throughout the body.

The blood contains a significant amount of lipids of different types. Blood fat saturation changes throughout life. This is influenced by the nature of nutrition, age, body condition, hormonal levels. An increase in the rate of neutral fats indicates that the body is not properly using lipids from food.

Other causes of elevated blood lipids:

Hyperlipidemia (increased fat levels) is observed with intoxication, liver dysfunction.

The process of fat metabolism in the human body directly depends on the metabolism of carbohydrates. In cases of regular consumption of high-calorie foods (rich in carbohydrates) without the necessary expenditure of energy, the joules obtained from carbohydrates are converted into fats. The fight against dietary obesity is to reduce the calorie content of the diet. In the menu, focus on proteins, fats, vitamins and organic acids.

Pathological obesity is a consequence of disorders of the neurohumoral mechanisms of regulation of carbohydrate and fat metabolism. Excessive accumulation of lipids in cells and tissues flows into dystrophy.

Fats in food

Biologists have said that about a fifth of the kilocalories needed for energy production, a person should receive from fats. The daily requirement is determined taking into account several parameters:

  • age;
  • lifestyle;
  • health conditions.
  • ​​

People who lead an active life, go in for sports (especially professionally) need a diet with a high calorie content. Elderly, inactive, with a tendency to be overweight should cut calories.

For health, it is important to consider not only the amount of fat in the diet, but also the ratio between the consumption of different types of lipids. And remember some recommendations of nutritionists:

  • saturated acids impair fat metabolism, liver performance, increase the risk of atherosclerosis;
  • polyunsaturated fatty acids stabilize metabolic processes, remove “bad” cholesterol from the body;
  • Abuse of unsaturated fats (vegetable oils) causes disorders of the gastrointestinal tract, the formation of stones in the biliary tract.

Ideally, a "fat" diet consists of 40% vegetable oils and 60% animal fats. In old age, the proportion of vegetable fats should increase.

The ratio of fatty acids in the diet:

  • monounsaturated - 50% of all fats;
  • polyunsaturated - 25%;
  • saturated - 25%.

Trans fats are unsaturated fats artificially converted to saturated. They are used in the food industry (sauces, mayonnaise, confectionery), although nutritionists categorically prohibit their use. Also, fats that have undergone strong heating and oxidation (chips, french fries, donuts, whites, deep-fried dishes) are harmful to the body.

Bad fats:

  • saturated fat;
  • low and very low density cholesterol;
  • trans fats.

Excess "bad" lipids cause:

  • obesity;
  • diabetes;
  • cardiovascular disease.

Saturated fats have a simpler molecular structure and are harmful to the human body, as they promote plaque growth and blockage of blood vessels.

Examples of foods containing saturated fats:

  • margarine;
  • animal fat (kidney, white on meat, interior, butter);
  • coconut and palm oils;
  • fatty meat;
  • dairy products;
  • fast food;
  • confectionery.

As for meat and dairy products, the body needs this food, but low-fat options should be preferred.

The higher the amount of saturated fat consumed, the higher the level of cholesterol in the blood. Cholesterol is mainly formed in the tissues of the liver and is required by the body in physiological quantities. Exceeding the norm leads to the development of heart disease and vascular problems.

Trans fats are liquid oils artificially converted into a solid form (margarines, cooking oils). Their task in cooking is to extend the shelf life of perishable products. Found in foods with a high glycemic index.

Healthy fats

Healthy fats are 2 types of unsaturated lipids: monounsaturated (omega-9) and polyunsaturated (omega-3, omega- 6).

Omega-9, or oleic acid, contributes to the normal flow of vital processes in the body. With its lack, cell membranes weaken, the balance of metabolism is disturbed. It is found in large quantities in olive oil.

Benefits of Omega-9:

  • has immunostimulating properties;
  • prevents the formation of malignant tumors in the female breast;
  • reduces the risk of developing diabetes, cardiovascular disease;
  • regulates cholesterol levels;
  • enhances protection against viruses and colds;
  • eliminates constipation, regulates the process of digestion;
  • improves memory;
  • relieves depression ;
  • improves the condition of the skin, nails, hair;
  • supplies energy resources.

Omega-3

Omega-3 plays an important role in life, but is not produced by the body itself. It affects the functioning of the brain, heart, joints, sharpens eyesight and lowers cholesterol. It has anti-inflammatory effect and powerful antioxidant properties.

Found in:

  • fish;
  • sesame, rapeseed oils;
  • walnuts;
  • flaxseeds.

Useful properties of Omega-3:

  • speeds up metabolism;
  • increases stamina;
  • activates the brain;
  • improves mood;
  • responsible for skin health;
  • promotes weight loss;
  • regulates hormonal balance.

Pregnant women and people at high risk of developing cancer should eat foods rich in omega-3 acids. It is part of rehabilitation therapy after a heart attack, circulatory disorders in the brain, fractures, autoimmune diseases. Used in cosmetic products.

Omega-6

Omega-6 is found in sunflower, corn, soybean oils, wheat germ, pumpkin seeds, poppy seeds, sunflower seeds, and walnuts. Insufficient amount leads to memory impairment, high blood pressure, frequent colds, skin diseases, chronic fatigue.

The human body needs to lower cholesterol, prevent and treat arthritis, protect nerve fibers from destruction (especially in diabetes), relieve women of premenstrual syndrome. Without Omega-6, the body will not be able to produce prostaglandin E1, which protects against early aging, allergies and the development of heart disease.

Nutritionists recommend using Omega-3 and Omega-6 in the range from 1:1 to 1:4 - such proportions are optimal for the body.

Table of fat content in products
Fat content per 100 g of product Product
Less than 20 g Dairy products, low-fat cheeses, cereals, cereals, legumes, offal, fish, seafood, mushrooms, eggs.
20-40 g Sour cream, cottage cheese (homemade), pork, fatty pieces of beef, fatty fish, goose, sausages and frankfurters, canned fish, sweets, coconuts.
More than 40 g Butter, margarine, fatty pork, duck, fish oil, nuts, seeds, raw smoked sausage, white chocolate, mayonnaise.

How to eat high fat foods: tips

  1. ) Avoid trans fats.
  2. Reduce saturated fat.
  3. Prefer natural fats.
  4. Unrefined and crude oils are only suitable for seasoning prepared meals.
  5. Animal fats are suitable for frying.
  6. Store oils in a dark place in sealed containers.
  7. Regular consumption of sea fish and linseed oil are rich in omega-3 fats.
  8. The ratio of vegetable fats to animals - 1:2, in old age - 2:1.
  9. Cholesterol in the diet does not exceed 300 mg per day.
  10. The ratio of saturated to monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fats is 3:4:3.
  11. Fat in the daily diet should not exceed one third of the total calories.
  12. Select a source of saturated fat from palm-sized lean cuts of meat and whole milk products.
  13. To get rid of excess fat when roasting meat, use grills.
  14. Instead of sausages, give preference to chicken breast and turkey.
  15. You can not completely refuse dairy - these products are extremely important for the body, including for weight control. But it is better to give preference to food with a lower fat content.
  16. Under normal conditions, the ratio of proteins, fats and carbohydrates in the diet should correspond to the proportion of 10:12:46.
  17. Most foods labeled "fat free" or "low fat" are fairly high in carbohydrates.
  18. Read product labels. Be wary of foods containing palm oil or hydrogenated oils.

Individual Daily Requirement

People with an active lifestyle should reduce their fat intake to 25% of their total daily calorie intake. To find out the rate of fat in grams, you can use the formula:

Total fat (g) \u003d (total calories x 30%): 9

If there is no time to bother over the solution of mathematical problems, then you can apply another, easier formula:

1.3 x your weight = daily intake of fat.

Best sources of healthy fats:

  • nuts: walnuts, almonds, pistachios;
  • fish: salmon, tuna, mackerel, trout, herring;
  • plant foods: olives, avocados;
  • oils: olive, sunflower.

Daily fat requirement:

  • for men - 70-154 g;
  • for women - 60-102 g;
  • children under one year old - 2.2-2.9 g per kilogram of body weight;
  • older than a year - 40-97

Deficiency and oversupply: what are the dangers

Probably no one needs to explain that excessive consumption of fatty foods leads to obesity. And the shortest way to overweight is trans fats.

Obesity is not only an aesthetic problem. Excess weight is always paired with a bouquet of diseases. First of all, the cardiovascular system suffers from excess fatty tissue.

Obesity:

  • worsening of the liver and pancreas;
  • development of oncological diseases is possible;
  • the chemical composition of the blood changes;
  • increased risk of heart attacks, strokes, coronary heart disease;
  • hypertension and tachycardia appear;
  • It becomes difficult for the heart to pump blood around the body.

Obesity has become the number one problem worldwide. And last but not least thanks to modern food with a lot of saturated fats.

But no less problematic for the body is the lack of lipids. Women who follow the figure, or people who are overweight, sometimes completely exclude all fats from their diet. At the same time, probably, none of them thinks that the total rejection of fat can cause more serious problems than extra pounds.

In fact, fats have received a bad reputation unfairly. Some (trans fats) really should be completely eliminated, but unsaturated ones should not be removed from the diet. True, and here it is necessary to remember the measure.

Signs of lack

Everything should be in balance. Lack of fat leads to its own problems.

Dry skin

The top layer of the skin began to peel and itch - it's time to replenish the sebaceous glands, whose function is to naturally moisturize the epidermis. avocados, nuts, olive oil will help to fix the problem.

Irritability and depression

Lack of lipids affects the mental state of a person. Have cases of blues become more frequent or, on the contrary, anger, have you noticed incomprehensible mood swings? It's time to introduce sea fish and flaxseeds into the diet. The healthy fats contained in them will make you calmer and kinder.

Easily fatigued

It's only dinner now, and the energy has already dried up? No energy at all? Most likely, the reason lies in the lack of fats, which are the main source of energy. Get rid of drowsiness and fatigue will help 20 grams of coconut oil drunk for breakfast with coffee.

The feeling of hunger does not leave

Have you eaten recently, but your stomach is already growling? A clear sign of "degreasing" of the body. A little good fat is enough to satisfy your hunger. A piece of avocado, some walnuts or a slice of fish will not affect the figure, but the body will be grateful for the recharge.

Are you cold even in the heat?

One of the functions of subcutaneous fat is to maintain a stable body temperature. For this reason, skinny people freeze more often and more than obese people. In conditions of a sharp decrease in air temperature (we left the house in the cold), the cells of adipose tissue throw out a portion of warming heat for the whole body. Of course, you should not build up the sides and stomach - a small subcutaneous layer of adipose tissue is enough to warm the body.

Distractedness

Fatty acids, in particular Omega-3, play an indispensable role for the normal functioning of the brain. Lipid deficiency leads to deterioration of brain activity. People with a lack of fat find it difficult to gather their thoughts, hold their attention, and concentrate on important things. It will help to improve the condition of food rich in unsaturated fatty acids.

Weight measured on site?

This, of course, sounds paradoxical, but in fact it is. People who are on a low-fat diet find it difficult to get rid of excess. The fact is that, according to the idea of ​​​​nature, when the body does not receive fat, it begins to draw energy from other sources - proteins and carbohydrates. He takes strength from what he receives regularly and what he does not need to stock up on. It keeps subcutaneous fats like “NZ”, being afraid to use up a substance, the spent reserves of which have nothing to replenish from.

Decreased vision

A sharp deterioration in vision is often a signal of fat deficiency. Lack of Omega-3 acid leads to glaucoma and increased eye pressure. The use of trans fats also negatively affects the eyes - up to complete loss of vision.

Joint pain

High cholesterol

The level of "bad" cholesterol directly depends on the indicators of "good": the more the first, the less the second. You can increase the reserves of “useful” cholesterol by eating sea fish once a week. Simply put, to increase "good" cholesterol, you need to eat "good" fats.

Are crowded places tiring?

This also signals a potential fat deficiency. Fatigue from being in stadiums or noisy parties is due to sensory disturbances in the body. To debug the level of noise perception will help products containing Omega-3.

Vitamin deficiency

Refusal of fatty foods is always vitamin deficiency A, D, E and K. These vitamins are fat-soluble substances. That is, in order for the body to be able to absorb them, it needs fats. A great way to restore vitamin balance is to introduce oil into the diet. Preferably coconut, despite the fact that it belongs to the saturated fats. This is the best option for activating fat-soluble vitamins.

What should be the percentage of lipids in the body

There are 2 types of fat deposits in the human body. This is the subcutaneous layer itself (visible) and the so-called visceral layer (around the internal organs). When calculating the percentage of body fat, both types of adipose tissue are taken into account. But internal reserves are more active in terms of metabolism than the sebaceous layer under the skin. Therefore, at the initial stage of the diet, weight loss begins from the inside - first, fat leaves the abdominal cavity, and only after it - external centimeters. Hence the calculation: with a decrease in total body weight within 5-10%, the fat content in the abdominal cavity is reduced by 10-30%.

For women, the normal percentage of lipids is 5-8 points higher than for men, and ranges from 20-25%. But these are only averages, which differ for different age categories.

If for male bodybuilders, reducing the “fat” percentage to a minimum almost does not pose a health hazard, then the female body can react quite sharply to “drying” - up to serious hormonal disorders.

Optimal body fat percentage for women
Age Normal (%) Average (%) Above normal (%)
18-25 22-25 25-29.5 29.6
25-30 years 22-25.5 25.5-29.7 29.8
30-35 years 22.5- 26.3 26.4 – 30.5 30.6
35-40 years 24-27.5 27.6-30.5 30.6
40-45 years 25.5-29.2 29, 3-32.6 32.7
45-50 years 27.5-30.8 30.9-34 34,
50-60 years 29.7-32.9 33-36.1 36.2
Over 60 30.7-34 34-37.3 37.4
(44 0) 26
Optimal body fat percentage for men
Age Normal (%) Average (%) Above normal (%)
18-25 years 15-18.9% 19-23.3 23.4
25-30 years 16.5-20.1 20.2-24.2 24.3
30-35 18-21.5 21.5-25.2 25.3
35-40 years 19.2-22.5 22.6-25.9
40-45 20.5-23.4 23.5-26.9 27
45-50 years 21.5-24.5 24.6-27.5 27.6
50-60 years 22.7-26 26.1-29.1 29.2
60 years and older 23.2-26.2 26.3-29.1 29.2

As for men, the presence of 15-20% fat in the body allows them to look fit. Six “packs” of the press become visible at an indicator of 10-12%, and 7% or less is the appearance of bodybuilders during the competition.

You can calculate the percentage of body fat using a special device by measuring the thickness of the folds on the body. This method is actively used by people professionally involved in bodybuilding. A simpler option is conventional electronic scales. In most models, it is possible to calculate the content of fat mass in the body.

Foods to reduce body fat

So, through simple measurements, it became clear: there is a little more fat in the body than necessary. You can get rid of excess if you adjust your diet and physical activity. But, in addition, there are many products from which the sebaceous layer melts even faster. Nutritionists call them fat burners and divide them into two groups: liquids and solids.

Liquid fat burners

  1. Water. Effectively speeds up metabolism if you drink a glass of water 20 minutes before breakfast. During the day, it is important to drink from one and a half to 2 liters of pure non-carbonated water.
  2. Green tea. Natural fat burner that speeds up metabolism.
  3. Coffee. A cup of this drink, drunk before a sports workout, will increase body temperature and speed up the burning of fat cells. This option, for obvious reasons, is not suitable for hypertensive patients.
  4. Barley water. Destroys subcutaneous fat cells, removes toxins from the body.
  5. Lemon water. Helps the body to get rid of excess weight, improves immunity, reduces appetite.
  6. Fresh. Freshly squeezed juices contain many vitamins. And they play an important role in the process of healing and cleansing the body of all that is superfluous.
  7. Red wine. Not everyone accepts the effectiveness of such a fat burner, but some nutritionists claim that a glass of wine before dinner significantly reduces appetite. The main thing is that the adoption of alcohol does not turn into a bad habit.

Solid fat burners

  1. Cereals. Cleanse the body of toxins. The most effective in the fight against body fat are oatmeal and buckwheat.
  2. Vegetables. Asparagus and cabbage remove excess fluid from the body, prevent fat deposition and the formation of edema, and regulate metabolism. Amazing effect in the breakdown of fat has ginger.
  3. Protein products. Natural fat burners among protein foods are egg whites, fish, and lean meats. They also contribute to a faster build-up of muscle mass instead of body fat.
  4. Fruits, berries. Vitamin-rich grapefruits (like other citrus fruits) are one of the best fat burners. Good for weight loss kiwi fruit and apples - normalize bowel function. Pineapple contains the substance bromelain, which dissolves fats. There is an enzyme that breaks down fat molecules in raspberries and raisins.
  5. Dairy products. Kefir, natural yogurt and cottage cheese destroy fatty tissues.
  6. Spices. Spicy spices stimulate an increase in body temperature and sweating, which leads to the breakdown of subcutaneous fat.

It is easy to make a fat-burning diet menu from the listed products. The most popular dishes of food programs aimed at reducing the percentage of fat are the Sassi drink, the so-called Bonn soup and fruit and spicy cocktails. All these dishes are easy to prepare yourself at home.

Drink Sassi frees the body from excess fluid and speeds up metabolism. It contains 2 liters of water, a teaspoon of minced ginger, 1 sliced ​​cucumber, slices of one lemon and a few mint leaves.

Bonn soup will require 1 cabbage, 2 sweet peppers, celery root and stalks, and a few tomatoes. If desired, the soup can be supplemented with other ingredients that can break down fat molecules.

For cocktails against excess fat, it is better to choose combinations of lemon and mint, grapefruit and pineapple, celery and apples, ginger and spicy spices.

However, the list of products is quite extensive, so there is something to experiment with.

Burning excess fat will help... fats

Of course, this does not sound very logical, but some scientists insist on this. In their opinion, it is enough to reduce the proportion of carbohydrate intake and slightly increase the daily portion of fat (of course, trans fats are not included in this category), and the process of weight loss will begin, and the level of “good” cholesterol will go up. At the same time, scientists insist: the amount of fat consumed should be increased due to red meat, sea fish, olive oil and nuts. Chicken dishes, some pork, avocado, tofu, rapeseed oil are also welcome. This approach is reminiscent of the Mediterranean diet.

Involving in the fight against excess fat, the ratio of consumed and burned calories is first of all important. “Healthy” fats are, of course, good, but no one has canceled exercise either.

Perhaps such a program for burning subcutaneous fat has the right to exist, and it is possible that it really helps many. Be that as it may, for anyone you will have to give up sweets, pies and buns, and the foods allowed by the diet, although they are included in the list rich in fats, are very useful. In small portions and they become dietary. After all, for weight loss it is important not to give up products, but to change the approach to nutrition.

Useful fats for weight loss should be looked for in such products:

  • meat;
  • nuts;
  • olive oil;
  • cheese;
  • avocado;
  • dark chocolate;
  • fat.

Regarding the last product, we note that despite the fact that lard is the champion in terms of fat content, it still contributes to weight loss, since it consists of unsaturated lipids. Once in the body, they destroy saturated fats. In addition, according to some sources, lard strengthens the immune system, serves as a prevention of oncology, heart and vascular diseases.

Surprising facts

The fact that fats are essential for the body to function properly and feel normal is already clear. But lipids in the human body have several other interesting functions that many did not even know about.

  1. For the brain. The brain, according to biologists, is almost 60% fat. The fatty "casing" envelops each fiber of the nervous tissue, which contributes to a faster transmission of impulses. A low-fat diet actually deprives the brain of the "building blocks" it needs to function. The brain needs omega-3 fatty acids to function properly.
  2. For the lungs. Their outer shell is almost entirely composed of fats. In premature babies, the lungs are devoid of a protective fatty layer, so these babies need outside help. Some scientists track the link between insufficient fat intake and the development of asthma.
  3. For immunity. Deficiency of lipids found in butter and coconut oil is believed by some scientists to cause leukocytes (white blood cells) to lose their ability to recognize and destroy viruses, fungi and bacteria.
  4. For skin. Phospholipids are the main component of the cell membrane. Without the required amount of fat, cells are destroyed, which means that the structure of tissues and organs is disrupted. This also applies to the skin - the largest organ in the human body. Dry and chapped skin is an open door for infections.
  5. For the heart. Saturated fats in adequate amounts are also beneficial. At least, this is what scientists who examined the inhabitants of the Pacific Islands say. Tribes whose diet includes coconut oil have virtually no cardiovascular problems.
  6. For hormones. Fats are structural components of hormones that regulate many body functions, including reproductive. Therefore, it is so important to avoid low-calorie diets in the diet of adolescent girls during the maturation period, since a deficiency of substances can adversely affect the development and functioning of the genital organs.

Many people unfairly classify lipids as “bad” foods and outright refuse to eat fatty foods. And they don’t even know what harm they bring to their body. But it is worth taking a closer look at these substances to understand: they are necessary for the body, and the cause of excess weight lies not in oils and sea fish, but in the wrong view of the principles of nutrition.