The text is for informational purposes only. We urge you not to use diets, do not resort to any medical menus and fasting without medical supervision. Recommended reading: " Why you can't go on a diet on your own". Nutrition for salmonellosis is part of the complex treatment of the disease. With salmonellosis, the intestinal mucosa is damaged, and the pathogen enters the body, most often, with food. Therefore, in order to restore the body in the acute, subacute and recovery period, an effective method for correcting and optimizing daily nutrition is needed, taking into account the impact on the gastrointestinal tract of chemical, mechanical and thermal factors of food.
Prohibited foods during infection
After the development of the first signs of infection in a sick person, eating is clearly the last thing he will think about in the next day. The fact is that salmonellosis begins abruptly and acutely, with fever, which is joined by nausea and vomiting, frequent diarrhea and abdominal pain. On the first day, when the symptoms are especially intense, it is better to completely refuse food, drink as much mineral water as possible, or an electrolyte solution of Regidron.
At the same time, the diet recommended for acute gastrointestinal conditions should be observed. This corresponds to therapeutic diet No. 4 according to Pevzner, the essence of which is to create the most gentle mode of operation of the digestive system, which is achieved by including in the diet only those foods and ready-made meals, the digestion of which does not require the release of a large amount of gastric secretion and does not require fermentation of undigested food by intestinal microflora and increased intestinal motility. As a result, the chemical and mechanical effects on the gastrointestinal tract are reduced to a minimum.
So, from the menu of a person suffering from salmonellosis, any fresh vegetables rich in coarse fiber and vegetable fibers, namely cabbage, radish, radish, beets, cucumbers, any legumes, tomatoes, mushrooms.
It is forbidden bread from rye flour, especially fresh. Fresh greens and most fruits are also banned, especially pears, plums, grapes and citrus fruits. For the time being it is better to give up milk and dairy products.
Any pickled foods, smoked meats, spices and spicy sauces, seasonings and canned food are also excluded. Any fast food is also prohibited.
Especially prohibited during the treatment period:
- fatty fish, poultry, meat;
- sausages ;
- nuts, seeds;
- mushrooms and mushroom dishes;
- rich soups with fish and meat broth;
- sweet pastries and confectionery;
- alcohol and carbonated drinks;
- chocolate, cocoa, coffee ;
- chips, snacks, salty croutons.
What can you eat
Regardless of whether the patient is in the hospital or on home treatment, for a while, while the condition is characterized as acute, its menu consists of the most sparing products. The diet provides for five meals a day in small portions (the so-called fractional diet), as well as the exclusion of certain foods and methods of their preparation (dishes should be steamed or boiled). Be sure to grind the ingredients with a blender or grind: food with a puree consistency is faster and easier to digest and does not irritate the inflamed intestinal walls. In addition, food should not be cold (below +15°C) or too hot (above +50°C).
The daily menu consists of the following products:
- no more than two chicken eggs per day can be eaten - soft-boiled or in the form of a steam omelet;
- 150-200 g pureed sweet fruits or berries (stewed in water or steamed, in the form of jelly or mousse - no added sugar );
- kissels from sweet berries (especially useful are blueberries ), green and black tea, berries rose hips and apple peel;
- 150-200 g fat-free cottage cheese (previously mashed);
- low-fat varieties of fish and meat in the form of steam cutlets, meatballs;
- watermelon : due to the diuretic effect, the body is actively cleansed of toxins, replenishes fluid loss;
- white crackers, which contribute to the saturation of the body with carbohydrates without causing fermentation in the intestines and stomach;
- light broths from chicken pureed soups;
- semolina, buckwheat, mashed rice : porridges are cooked only on water, without adding sugar, oils, salts.
Be sure to drink 2-4 liters of fluid daily from approved beverages, water, and electrolyte solutions.
During the rehabilitation period
The recovery period after salmonellosis usually exceeds the duration of the disease itself. During the period of illness, the infection causes damage to the body, in particular the gastrointestinal tract. This is especially reflected in the condition of patients with already existing chronic diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, since against the background of salmonellosis these diseases often become aggravated, causing the patient even more discomfort.
Compliance with the diet is the main requirement during the period of rehabilitation after an illness, which lasts 3-4 weeks.
What to eat after salmonellosis? The menu for recovered persons is expanding gradually. In the first days of improvement, only the most sparing foods are present in the diet:
- low-fat fermented milk ( cottage cheese, kefir, yogurt without additives, fermented baked milk );
- lean types of fish and meat, steamed or boiled, soufflé, meatballs, meatballs;
- beef or chicken liver in the form of soufflés and pates;
- buckwheat, rice and semolina porridges, which can be cooked already with the addition of a small amount of milk and salt, but without butter ;
- baked apples, bananas, grated berries;
- quince puree ;
- baked or boiled vegetables, mainly carrots, potatoes and zucchini ;
- vegetable soups;
- yesterday's white bread and crackers from it.
As before, you need to drink as much liquid as possible - water, green tea, fruit drinks and kissels.
After 4-5 days, if the patient's stool normalizes and there are no complaints about well-being, you can begin to gradually introduce new foods into the daily menu, on average, one new product every two days. You can start with butter, adding it to cereals in a small amount. Next, you should pay attention to fruits or vegetables, pasta, barley porridge. Heavy and unhealthy foods and drinks, such as smoked meats, bacon, sausages, spicy spices, fast food, snacks and snacks, sweet carbonated water - all this can be consumed no earlier than a month after the completion of the active stage of treatment.
Features of the menu for children
Medical nutrition for children during the active stage of salmonellosis is based on the same principles as for adults. All foods and dishes that enhance secretion in the digestive organs, fermentation processes in the intestines are excluded.
Peculiarities of baby food during the course of salmonellosis require some adaptation of the menu to age needs. In the first days of the acute period, the child will be expected to refuse food, so it is better to give him plenty of fluids, such as lightly sweetened tea and warm rice water, jelly from bird cherry or blueberries. Young children are given only water. At this time, even white crackers are not recommended, as they bind the tannins of tea and berries.
Further nutrition is based on the principles of diet No. 4 for 4-5 days. Dishes are liquid, semi-liquid, mashed, boiled in water or steamed. That is, food should be mechanically gentle and easily digestible. Carbohydrates, fats, salt in the diet are limited, instead, the intake of protein is emphasized. It will be useful to introduce fermented milk products with lactobacilli into the diet, which help to normalize bowel function. Whole milk should be discarded, and introduced into the diet as one of the last products during the rehabilitation period.
For babies up to a year old, emphasis should be placed on low-fat kefir and mixtures of Lactofidus, NAS sour-milk and acidophilic Malyutka.
As the manifestations of intoxication decrease, the child can gradually be introduced into the diet of low-fat cottage cheese, meat turkey, veal, beef in the form of meatballs, meatballs and steam soufflés. Low-fat fish, cereals on the water, mashed vegetable soups, soups with boiled noodles, white bread crackers are also allowed. In order to speed up the healing process, it is necessary to give children potatoes, carrots, apples - these products contain pectin, which binds water, absorbing toxins and bacterial residues in the intestines. In the acidic environment of the stomach, calcium, known for its anti-inflammatory properties, is split off from pectin. Fruits and vegetables are allowed to be consumed only boiled or steamed.
After the disease
As a result of salmonellosis, children usually have difficulty digesting food, fermentopathy appears, in which the absorption of food is disturbed. In this case, do not rush to diversify the child's diet with fresh fruits, vegetables, juices for a period of 1 month.
In general, the diet of a child during the recovery period is slightly expanded compared to the acute stage of the disease. Wiped porridges with a small amount of salt are allowed, in water or light broth: rice, semolina, buckwheat, oatmeal, as well as mashed mucous soups in water or meat broth. Pureed vegetables, meatballs or minced meat are added to soups. The child is given white bread crackers and dry biscuit cookies as snacks.
Gradually begin to add 3-5 grams of butter to the dishes. Lean beef, poultry and veal are allowed - steam cutlets, soufflés, meatballs are prepared from minced meat. You can also eat mashed boiled low-fat sea fish. Casseroles are prepared from unleavened mashed cottage cheese, and after the stool has stabilized, it is eaten uncooked.
Other allowed products:
- dogwood (compotes, kissels);
- blackberry, blueberry;
- rabbit ;
- black and green tea;
- still mineral water.
Bran, seeds, nuts, legumes, indigestible cereals (barley, corn), fried and hard-boiled eggs, sugar, sweets, honey, citrus fruits, mushrooms, chocolate, sausages, fatty meat and fish, herbs, sour cream, fresh fruits and vegetables are also excluded during the rehabilitation period.
Recipes for salmonellosis
All dishes consumed during and after the treatment of the disease are properly processed and crushed. Below are some recipes for food allowed for sick people.
Meat-broth rice soup is made with lean poultry or meat. 100 ml of water is added to 300 ml of broth, 40 grams of rice is poured with broth and boiled until completely boiled. Next, the soup is rubbed on a sieve, a little salt is added.
It is not recommended to eat pearl barley during salmonellosis, but it can be used to make a healthy slimy soup.
For 40 grams of cereal, you need 650 ml of low-fat meat broth and 5 grams of butter. The grits are sorted and washed, poured with liquid and boiled until softened. The soup is filtered, the grits are removed from it. The resulting broth is brought to a boil, adding butter.
A simple recipe for meatballs with rice - minced meat and rice are taken at the rate of about 20 grams of rice for every 100 grams of minced meat. The meat is ground three times in a meat grinder, the rice is sorted, washed, boiled until tender. The cooled grits are rubbed through a sieve and mixed with minced meat. The mixture can be slightly salted, and then it needs to be beaten off with a chops hammer. Balls are molded from it and steamed.
To prepare a diet soufflé from pollock, pollock fillet, 30 ml of milk, 5 grams wheat flour, 1 egg, a little vegetable oil are taken. The prepared fillet is passed through a meat grinder three times. A white sauce is prepared from flour with milk in a pan (flour is heated, poured with milk, stirring constantly, kept on fire for 2-3 minutes). The chilled sauce is salted, added to the fish, egg yolkis also put there, the mixture is well mixed. The protein is whipped to a strong foam and injected into the fish mass, mixing a little. The mixture is placed in an oiled mold and steamed.
During the recovery period, the patient can be pleased with a simple cottage cheese dessert - cottage cheese soufflé with blueberry jelly. It will require 120 grams of cottage cheese, 10 grams of semolina, 10 grams of butter, 15 grams of sugar, 1 egg, 100 grams of blueberries, 5 grams of starch.
Semolina is boiled until cooked, cooled. Grated cottage cheese is combined with semolina, yolk, sugar and melted butter are added. The mass is ground on a sieve, pre-whipped protein is introduced, kneaded and put the soufflé in a form for steam cooking. Blueberry jelly is cooked with the addition of potato starch. Ready hot jelly is poured over the soufflé before serving.
Answers to popular questions
How to neutralize eggs contaminated with salmonella?
Chicken eggs and eggs of other birds are the most popular product that is in every home. At the same time, it is one of the main sources of salmonellosis, especially raw and undercooked eggs. To exclude possible infection, using eggs for food, you need to remember some rules.
You can't buy eggs from your hands, in spontaneous markets, and you can't take eggs with shells stained with droppings and blood. After contact with the shell, you need to wash your hands. In the refrigerator itself, eggs are stored on a separate shelf, and preferably in a separate closed container.
If the bacterium is only present on the shell, this will be enough to render the bacteria harmless. However, if microorganisms have penetrated the shell inside, it becomes more difficult to disinfect the egg - for this you need to process the product in the appropriate temperature regime. Deep freezing will not help to avoid salmonellosis - the bacterium remains viable at sub-zero temperatures throughout the year. If you boil an egg at a temperature of 55 degrees, the cooking process will drag on for one and a half to two hours. You need to boil eggs in water at a temperature of 70 degrees and above, for 12-15 minutes. The use of raw eggs of any bird is extremely dangerous precisely because of the threat of infection, so in order not to get sick, you should not get carried away with dishes and sauces with raw eggs, especially in summer.
It is almost impossible to achieve a full recovery and recovery after an illness without observing dietary nutrition rules. The diet for salmonellosis is aimed at suppressing the manifestation of the symptoms of the disease and accelerating the onset of recovery.
- Food+ Project. – Nutrition for salmonellosis Adapted from https://edaplus.info/feeding-in-sickness/salmonellosis.html.
- Medical advisor. - Diet for salmonellosis in adults and children: basic rules of nutrition.
- Culinary site “Yedun”. - Diet for salmonellosis.