Peanut butter

Peanut butter is known to many of us from American movies and TV shows, but in our country it is not very popular among consumers. However, this oily product does not deserve such a low rating.

Peanut butter is made from peanuts, or peanuts. Contrary to the name "peanut", the peanut fruit is not a nut. Botanically speaking, the peanut fruit is a bean. It grows on an annual legume grass. After pollination of the flower, its peduncle lengthens, sinks into the ground, and already underground an ovary is formed on it. Peanut fruits ripen inside a non-opening bean pod, which contains 2 to 4 fleshy seeds.

What happens

Peanut oil is obtained by cold pressing ground ground nuts.

It is unrefined and refined. The unrefined oil is dark red in color and has a rich, nutty flavor. The refined product has a straw-yellow color and a delicate taste, and, in turn, is divided into deodorized and non-deodorized.

The method of cold pressing, in which the raw material is not affected by any chemicals or temperature, produces the most useful oil, which can be used both in cooking and for medicinal purposes.

Chemical composition

This peanut product contains lipids (consisting mainly of unsaturated fats and phytosterols), vitamins, minerals, polyphenols (resveratrol), aromatic acids (p-coumaric), proteins and carbohydrates.

There are few proteins and sugars in this oily product - the so-called traces. All of them remain in the bean cake after the oil has been pressed. A small amount of the amino acid betaine (up to 1.5 mg per 100 g of oil) enters the oil from peanut proteins.

Oil contains 95-97 g fats, of which up to 83% are unsaturated. Among unsaturated fats, omega-9 and omega-6 fatty acids make up the largest amount in peanut butter - up to 45%, which is about 150% of the daily requirement of the human body for them. The most useful omega-3s are contained in it in a small amount - 0.006 g per 100 g of fat (less than 1% of the daily requirement).

Unsaturated fatty acids
Name Content per 100 g, grams
Oleic omega-9 37.6-47.2
Eruc omega-9 1.0-1.2
Linoleic omega-6 30.0-31.0
Gadoleic omega-9 1.7-1.8

A positive feature of the fat composition Peanut butter is characterized by a high content of phytosterols - 0.44 g, which is about 150% of the daily requirement of the human body for them.

Phytosterols
Name Content in 100 g, milligrams
Beta-sitosterol 260.0-330.0
Campesterol 68.0
Stigmasterol 1.4

Due to its high content of these substances, peanut butter is very beneficial to consume. women, as phytosterols have a positive effect on the functioning of their reproductive system. An important role among the phytosterols of this bean oil is played by beta-sitosterol, the amount of which in 100 g of the product exceeds 120% of the daily requirement.

Peanut butter is a source of fat-soluble antioxidant vitamin E (over 120% of the daily requirement) and biotin (160%). It also contains many B vitamins, which are involved as coenzymes and catalysts in lipid, water-salt and protein metabolism, promote hematopoiesis.

Vitamins
Name Content in 100 g, milligrams
Vitamin B1 (thiamine) 1.28-1.48
Vitamin B2 (riboflavin) 0.22-0.27
Vitamin B4 (choline) 1.0-1.1
Vitamin B5 (pantothenic acid) 3.5
Vitamin B6 (pyridoxine) 0.69
Vitamin B9 (folic acid) 0.48
Vitamin PP (nicotinic acid) 37.8
Vitamin C (ascorbic acid) 10.6
Vitamin E (alpha tocopherol and gamma-tocopherol) 33.4-37.0
Vitamin H (biotin) 0.08

richer than the fruits of this plant themselves: a lot of macro- and microelements after pressing the oil remain in the cake. But minerals important for the life of the human body also pass into vegetable oil: manganese (up to 80% of the daily requirement), magnesium (up to 40%), copper (up to 25%), iron, zinc and selenium.

Peanut oil is a plant-based source of the polyphenol resveratrol, which is found in clinically significant amounts of 140 mcg per 100 g of oil, which is 14% of the human body's daily requirement for it.

Calorie content of peanut oil is 880-900 kcal per 100 g, which does not distinguish its energy value from other vegetable oils.

Useful properties

The high concentration of minerals and vitamins in this fatty product determines its beneficial effect on the structure and functioning of various organs of the human body.

Effects on blood and immunity

Peanut oil has a beneficial effect on the cellular and chemical composition of the blood:

  • binds cholesterol ;
  • has an antianemic effect;
  • stimulates the production of blood immune cells;
  • lowers sugar levels;
  • increases resistance to infectious agents.

Effects on the digestive system

When ingested in limited amounts, this vegetable fat affects the functioning of the digestive system:

  • enveloping effect on the mucous membrane of the stomach and intestines;
  • reduces inflammatory reactions in the digestive organs;
  • restores liver cells;
  • prevents damage to liver cells by free radicals;
  • emulsifies bile and pancreatic secretions;
  • prevents stone formation in the bile ducts and bladder;
  • prevents fatty degeneration of the liver;
  • promotes production and release of bile;
  • stimulates intestinal peristalsis;
  • binds cholesterol in the gut.

Influence on the cardiovascular system

Peanut oil in the heart and blood vessels:

  • normalizes the conduction of nerve impulses along the nerves of the myocardium;
  • improves blood supply to the heart muscle and brain;
  • increases the elasticity of the vascular walls;
  • contributes to an adequate response of the smooth muscles of the arterial walls to changes in environmental conditions;
  • lowers blood pressure;
  • prevents pathological thrombosis.

Effects on the nervous system and sensory organs

Antioxidant compounds found in peanut butter:

    )
  • are involved in the formation of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine;
  • promote mental activity;
  • increase the reaction rate;
  • restore eye structures;
  • improve the sense of smell;
  • relieve local inflammation in peripheral nerves;
  • have a calming effect on the nervous system.

Influence on hormonal levels

Due to phytosterols, peanut oily product affects the reproductive system in women and men:

    )
  • promotes the synthesis of steroid hormones of the adrenal glands;
  • improves hormone-producing function of the ovaries and testicles;
  • restores the menstrual cycle in women;
  • increases prostate secretion in men;
  • improves sperm quality;
  • relieves local inflammation of the genital organs;
  • increases libido and potency.

Effects on the skin, hair and nails

Ingestion and external application of this fat improves the condition of the skin and its appendages (hair, nails):

  • improves skin firmness;
  • prevents dehydration of the skin;
  • reduces brittle hair and nails;
  • contributes to the normalization of the synthesis of protein fibrous structures in the dermis - collagen, proteoglycans, elastin;
  • has a regenerating effect on the skin.
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Betaine, contained in peanut oil, promotes the absorption of amino acids in the intestine and restores the detoxification function of the liver.

Resveratrol and p-coumaric acid of this plant fat have antioxidant and anti-cancer effects in the body. Regular consumption of peanut butter in moderation reduces the incidence of cancer and diabetes by 25% compared to those who do not consume this product.

The high calorie content of the oil, when ingested before the main meal, accelerates the appearance of satiety, which is used in the fight against excess weight.

Harmful properties

The presence of erucic acid in peanut oil when consumed regularly in large quantities contributes to its accumulation in the human body. An excess of this acid in the body:

  • disrupts the normal functioning of the heart and blood vessels;
  • impairs cardiac contractility;
  • contributes to fatty infiltration and cirrhosis of the liver;
  • causes muscle weakness;
  • inhibits the formation of sex hormones;
  • slows growth in children and puberty in adolescents.

Obesity can develop when consuming peanut products, including peanut oil.

A significant predominance of omega-6 over omega-3 fatty acids when this fat is consumed in large quantities can cause a paradoxical hypercholesterolemic effect.

Peanut oil is a food that is difficult to digest. It can cause allergies: according to statistics, up to 0.6% of Americans are allergic to peanuts and peanut products. An allergy to peanut butter is manifested by a hypersensitivity reaction, which, if precautions are not taken, can result in anaphylactic shock, including to other foods.

Incorrect storage of peanuts before extracting oil from them can lead to the accumulation of plant poisons in them - aflatoxins. Aflatoxins have dangerous actions for the human body:

  • hepatotoxic (impair the functioning of the liver);
  • embryotoxic (contribute to the occurrence of mutations in the tissues of the embryo until its death);
  • teratogenic (cause fetal malformations);
  • mutagenic (increase the likelihood of oncopathologies);
  • immunosuppressant (suppresses the immune system).

Peanut butter is not recommended for pregnant or breastfeeding women. It is also undesirable to use it for people suffering from:

  • bronchial asthma;
  • food allergies;
  • arthritis;
  • arthrosis;
  • hemophilia.

Ingestion of peanut oil should be done in small amounts (no more than 1 teaspoon per day) to reduce the likelihood of hazardous properties.

Use in medicine

A large number of useful properties of peanut oil are used by physicians in clinical nutrition for many diseases.

This herbal product is recommended for oral use for:

  • increased fatigue;
  • depression, apathy;
  • insomnia;
  • neuritis, radiculitis;
  • multiple sclerosis;
  • Alzheimer's disease;
  • glaucoma;
  • cataracts;
  • conjunctivitis;
  • retinopathy;
  • macular degeneration.

It is useful in small amounts in diseases of the digestive tract:

  • biliary dyskinesias;
  • cholelithiasis;
  • hepatitis;
  • cirrhosis;
  • fatty liver;
  • stomach and intestinal ulcers;
  • colitis and enteritis;
  • chronic constipation;
  • hemorrhoids.

Due to its hypocholesterolemic and hypoglycemic action, groundnut oil is indicated for use in:

  • atherosclerosis;
  • arrhythmias;
  • conditions after heart attacks and strokes;
  • arterial hypertension;
  • coronary heart disease;
  • diabetic angiopathy;
  • diabetes mellitus.

It is prescribed as a dietary supplement in the treatment of sexual disorders, hormonal disorders and inflammatory diseases of the reproductive system in men and women.

Topical application of peanut oil is indicated for:

  • exudative diathesis in children;
  • trophic ulcers;
  • herpes;
  • eczema;
  • psoriasis;
  • hematomas and skin wounds.

Application in cosmetology

The regenerative properties of this vegetable fat are successfully used by cosmetologists. It:

  • absorbs into the skin without a greasy residue;
  • softens and firms the skin;
  • retains moisture in the dermis, thereby preventing skin flaking;
  • relieves irritation and redness of the skin after sunburn;
  • prevents skin cell aging and wrinkles;
  • has a rejuvenating effect when there are signs of skin aging.

Unrefined peanut oil is used to prepare lotions, balms, creams, cosmetic soaps and masks for dry and sensitive skin, shampoos and balms for split ends. It is rubbed into the cuticle after a hygienic manicure and pedicure, added to baths and nail baths. Refined deodorized peanut oil is used as a massage oil.

Cooking Uses

Unrefined peanut butter, which has a sweet nutty aroma and rich taste, is liked to be added to dishes in Asian cuisine: in Japan, Korea, Thailand, China, India. Refined peanut oil, which has a light color, less pronounced taste and smell, is used in European and American cuisines.

Peanut butter can withstand high temperatures, but does not smoke, so it can be used for frying. It is used for deep-frying: meat, mushrooms, fish, shrimp, dough are fried in it.

This vegetable fat product in the form of a dressing adds a spicy flavor to salads and soups. It is used in the preparation of cereals, meat and vegetable dishes, added to desserts and pastries. It is lubricated with meat and fish before grilling.

Conclusions

Peanut oil contains unsaturated fats, vitamins, minerals and bioactive compounds (polyphenols, aromatic acids, coenzymes).

Peanut oil has many useful properties that are used in medicine, cosmetics and cooking. It is recommended for ingestion in small quantities for pathologies of the heart, blood vessels, nervous system, digestive organs, hormonal disorders in men and women.

In cosmetology, many cosmetic products are prepared on its basis for dry and aging skin, brittle hair and nails.

But you can't get carried away with this fatty product. It is high in calories, and with unlimited use it can cause allergies and poisoning.

In cooking, peanut oil is used to prepare various dishes in Asian (Chinese, Korean, Japanese, Indian), American and European cuisines.