Pear

Pears are refreshing and healthy fruits. They are rich in fiber and antioxidants, and regular consumption of these fruits promotes weight loss, stabilizes sugar in the bloodstream. Interested in the abilities of these fruits? And this is only a small part of the huge list of benefits.

General characteristics

Pear is a member of the Rose family, which, in addition to flowers, includes a long list of delicious berries and fruits. Apples, cherries, plums, peaches, medlar, raspberries also belong to this family. The fruits of the pear tree come in a variety of shades: green, red, yellow and even brown. Some of the varieties do not change their color after ripening, which complicates the selection of the fruit according to the degree of maturity. Ripe fruits are sweet, tasty and rich in nutrients, they are at the same time as crispy as apples and juicy as peaches.

Scientists have been discussing the origin of this plant for several years now. Some believe that European pears (common) and Asian pears (Ussuri) developed as two different plants, but at about the same time (about 1000 BC). In addition to the named varieties, other species of this tree grew in different parts of Africa. But according to recent studies, China can be called the birthplace of pears.

Asian pears are crispy in texture, firmer and do not change after harvest, ideal for storage. European varieties are soft and juicy when ripe.

Today, pears are grown in almost all countries. But on a global scale, China is considered the largest producer of these fruits - almost 3/4 of the total volume of pears falls to its share. Also for industrial purposes, the fruit is grown in Argentina, the USA, some European countries, New Zealand, and South Korea. More than 3 thousand varieties are known, which differ in size, color, shape and taste of fruits.

Pear varieties

Fruits cultivated in our latitudes are usually classified into 3 groups:

  • winter varieties;
  • autumn;
  • summer.

Winter varieties

Cold-tolerant, intended for storage (some do not lose their qualities until spring). Ripen in October. Harvesting begins shortly before full maturity (before they fall off the tree).

Cure - fruits of dense texture, tart taste, medium taste and aroma.

Etude Kyiv - with juicy oily pulp, pleasant sour taste and rose aroma; prone to fading.

Bere Ardanpon - a Belgian variety, the fruits are stored until February. Slightly tart, but sweet and soft, can reach 500 g in weight.

Kyrgyz winter - fruits with coarse-grained pulp, tart, with a characteristic aftertaste.

November - very juicy, sweet and sour, with a delicate aroma.

Autumn varieties

Ripe by the beginning of November, stored for no longer than a month and a half, quickly lose their taste and shape. Good for jams, compotes and other types of preserves.

Otradnenskaya - practically devoid of smell and juiciness, with a sweet and sour taste.

Admiral Gervais is a French variety with a sweet and sour taste, juicy flesh and an expressive smell.

Pamyat Zhegalov - sweet and sour fruits, with juicy slightly granular flesh, fragrant.

Duchesse is a French variety with a characteristic taste, delicate flesh and pronounced aroma.

Summer varieties

Ripe by July. They rot quickly and are not suitable for storage. After about two weeks, they lose their taste and beautiful appearance.

Lemon - easy to recognize by lemon color, firm flesh with a watery aftertaste.

Lada - fruits with a sweet and sour taste, tender pulp of medium juiciness.

White leaf - yellowish, juicy and dense.

Early ripening - greenish in color with ruddy sides, sweet and sour, stored for no more than 10-12 days.

Rogneda - fruits with a loose skin, yellow with red sides, sweet with a nutmeg flavor.

Bere Giffard - green fruits with red-orange sides, with tender sour pulp.

Nutritional Values ​​

Pears are a rich source of phenolic phytonutrients and fiber, as well as many vitamins and minerals. Researchers have calculated that pears are 84% water and 15% carbohydrates. One medium pear (weighing about 180 g) contains almost 100 calories.

One pear fruit is usually about 5-6 grams of fiber. It is essential for the body to properly digest food. In addition, this substance can prevent many diseases. In addition to fiber, one fruit can provide more than 200 mg of potassium, which is known to be essential for proper heart function and muscle functionality. The main vitamin responsible for immunity, ascorbic acid, is also abundant in pears. One medium fruit is almost 8 mg of vitamin C. This fruit also contains vitamin K, which is responsible for blood clotting, and vitamin A, a substance that is good for eye health.

Nutritional value per 100 g
Calories 57 kcal
Water 84 g
Proteins 0.3 g
Fats 0.1 g
Carbohydrates 15.2 g
Vitamin A 1.12 mcg
Vitamin C 4.43 mg
Vitamin E 0.13 mg
Vitamin K 4.41 mcg
Vitamin B1 0.01 mg
Vitamin B2 0.06 mg
Vitamin B3 0.17 mg
Vitamin B5 0.08 mg
Vitamin B6 0.03 mg
Folic acid 7 mcg
Choline 5.27 mg
Calcium 9.21 mg
Iron 0.13 mg
Magnesium 7.24 mg
Phosphorus 13 mg
Potassium 118 mg
Sodium 1.25 mg
Zinc 0.21 mg
Copper 0.09 mg
Manganese 0.06 mg
Selenium 0.2 mcg

Health Benefits

These tasty fruits are an important source of antioxidants and other useful components on which the performance of organs and systems depends. However, many studies have shown that increased consumption of plant foods protects against obesity, diabetes, and heart disease.

Here are just some of the benefits of eating pears regularly.

Scientists have calculated that men under the age of 50 need 40 g of fiber daily, for women this norm is about 25 g. The population of the planet does not consume the necessary portions of dietary fiber. The lack of this substance is dangerous to health. One of the most common modern diseases caused by fiber deficiency is diverticulosis. Also, do not forget that fiber is the main “prevention” of obesity and heart disease (since it regulates the level of bad cholesterol ). Increasing your dietary fiber intake is easy if you include more fruits and vegetables in your diet, and pears are one of the best options.

Antioxidant Product

This fruit can serve as one of the richest sources of antioxidants. In addition to vitamin C, which has antioxidant properties, pears contain flavonoids, which also resist free radicals. Among the most powerful components called chlorogenic acid - an antioxidant that protects the heart. Cyanidin (found in the skin of the fruit, responsible for the red pigment) helps protect blood vessels from oxidation, while quercetin is known for its antibacterial and anti-inflammatory properties.

Anti-cancer agent

The fiber contained in pears "works" in the body as an anti-cancer agent. It affects the so-called secondary bile acids, reducing their concentration in the body. As a result of such exposure, the risk of developing colorectal cancer is reduced several times.

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On the other hand, consumption of pears is beneficial in preventing stomach cancer. The results of a recent experiment conducted in Mexico City showed that it is enough to introduce 2 servings of fruits (including pears) daily into the menu to significantly reduce the body's tendency to grow malignant tumors. And American scientists have found a link between the consumption of pears and esophageal cancer. As it turned out, the disease can be avoided if you regularly consume these fruits. By the way, an apple, plum and strawberry also have a similar effect.

Benefits for Diabetes

Type 2 diabetes is a common condition characterized by high blood sugar levels or the inability of the body to produce insulin. A diet rich in fiber (for example, pears) reduces the risk of this disease, and in patients stabilizes the level of glucose in the bloodstream. In addition, pears are rich in flavonoids (epicatechin, quercetin, anthocyanins ), which increase insulin sensitivity.

Regular consumption of these fruits (of any variety) is good for general health. In particular, pears are useful for removing toxins. This is evidenced by the results of many studies.

Prevention of anemia

For those diagnosed with anemia, pears are extremely beneficial as a fruit rich in iron. But in addition, these fruits contain copper - a substance that improves the absorption of other minerals, including iron. Fatigue, cognitive impairment, muscle weakness, and organ failure can be prevented by consuming foods rich in copper and iron. And both of these minerals are found in significant amounts in pears.

Bone and joint health

The rich content of minerals, including magnesium, phosphorus, manganese, calcium, makes pears a bone-healthy fruit. These nutrients prevent bone thinning and the development of osteoporosis. And being a rich source of antioxidants and flavonoids, pears prevent inflammation in the joints, reduce the risk of arthritis, rheumatic diseases, and gout.

For weight loss

Pears are one of the most dietary fruits. One average fruit contains only 100 kilocalories, and this is a rather low figure. But, in addition, fruits are able to quickly provide a feeling of satiety, because they contain a lot of fiber. A study of 40 overweight women showed that pears were more effective in weight loss than oatmeal. In addition, eating a small amount of fruit daily encourages the growth of beneficial bacteria in the digestive system, which is also beneficial for easier weight loss.

Beauty Fruit

This amazing fruit is rich in vitamin A, carotenoids, lutein and zeaxanthin. They act as powerful antioxidants in the human body. In addition, these components are indispensable for many enzymatic reactions. As a result, we can say that pears are able to prevent the occurrence of age-related changes, in particular the appearance of age spots and wrinkles.

These fruits are useful for people with oily skin, as the substances contained in them regulate the secretion of the sebaceous glands (applied in the form of a mask of pears, honey and fresh cream). Useful fruit for the treatment of acne, skin infections, acne. For the treatment of these troubles, the usual gruel from the pulp of the fruit is suitable. In cosmetology, pears are also useful for making homemade scrubs, products for exfoliating dead cells.

Pears help prevent hair loss, moisturize and nourish hair with vitamins. But, perhaps, the owners of curls will appreciate the benefits of pear extract best of all. Products from these fruits make curls more manageable, shiny and easy to comb. At home, it is easy to prepare a mask from the pulp of ripe fruits, apple cider vinegar and a little water.

Other Health Benefits

In addition to the benefits already mentioned, pears are good for:

  • regulating fluid levels in the body;
  • blood pressure stabilization;
  • reduced risk of stroke;
  • tissue repair and wound healing;
  • strengthening immunity;
  • reduce inflammation;
  • restoration of visual acuity;
  • hangover prevention.

Use in the food industry

In the food industry, pears (raw or cooked) are most commonly used in desserts.

If desired, they can be consumed peeled or with the skin. These fruits are a great addition to any fruit salad, and can also serve as an ingredient for a healthy dessert of cheese, honey and walnuts. Fans of more interesting dishes can prepare an appetizer of watercress, mustard, leeks and a few slices of pears.

Possible Side Effects

Generally, pears do not cause much allergic reactions. However, some people may have an individual intolerance to fruits, which is manifested by discomfort in the oral cavity, or rather astringency. Other possible side effects include bloating and diarrhea.

How to choose and store properly

Since summer and autumn varieties of pears spoil quickly, as a rule, they are sold unripe. But this is not a problem affecting the taste of the fruit. It will only take a few days for it to reach maturity at room temperature.

There are several parameters to choose a fruit. First, it is important to pay attention to its skin. It should be smooth, without bruises and damage. The color of a quality fruit should be uniform, without dark soft spots.

To determine the ripeness of the fruit, you can lightly press your finger on the top of the fruit. If this is done without effort, then the fruit is ripe, but if it is too easy (the finger seems to fall into the pulp), the pear is overripe (it is better not to take such fruits).

If you do not plan to eat pears right away, ripe fruits can be placed in the refrigerator. So they will retain their freshness and suitability for a longer time. To speed up the ripening of green fruits, it is enough to put them in a paper bag and leave them at room temperature for a day or two.

This fruit is best eaten with the skin on, as it contains nearly half of all the fiber, as well as a high concentration of antioxidants and anti-inflammatory phytonutrients. But in this case, it is important to make sure that its surface does not contain "chemistry".

Pears are amazing fruits that people have been enjoying since ancient times. In addition to the delicious taste, these fruits have many health benefits. They promote weight loss, protect the heart, and regulate fluid levels in the body. Pears reduce blood pressure and prevent cancer, promote rapid healing of wounds and strengthen the immune system, improve blood circulation and protect against osteoporosis. Whichever side you look at, these fruits are truly divine.

Sources
  1. Wikipedia.org. - Pear.
  2. Health-diet.ru. - Calorie "Pear". Chemical composition and nutritional value.
  3. Healthline.com. – 9 Health and Nutrition Benefits of Pears.
  4. Ncbi.nlm.nih.gov. – Gastric cancer research in Mexico: A public health priority.
  5. Emedicinehealth.com. – Pear.
  6. Webmd.com. – Pear.