Rash

A rash, regardless of the place of discovery, age and gender, almost always indicates a violation of the function of some internal organs, or the whole system.

If such a negative manifestation is not eliminated in time, then a simple red small rash can develop into a more serious pathology. To recognize the rash and provide adequate assistance, an examination by a specialist is necessary.

Types of rash and causes of its appearance

The skin reflects all the processes that occur in the human body, so the appearance of various rashes should be taken seriously, and not just as a cosmetic defect. Such a sign may be one of the first symptoms of an infectious or other disease.

If a skin rash is found, it is necessary to consult a dermatologist. The doctor will determine the cause of the pathologies and prescribe treatment, and may also refer you for additional diagnostics and consultation to another narrowly specialized specialist. Thus, the patient will begin treatment of the disease in advance and eliminate not only the external signs, but also the internal cause of the rash.

In addition to visual changes in the color and structure of the skin (redness and peeling), a rash is often characterized by the occurrence of pain. Pathology at any age (both in adults and in children, especially in infants) requires mandatory treatment.

Urgent mandatory treatment due to the fact that a rash occurs for the following reasons:

  • infectious diseases: measles, rubella, typhoid fever, chickenpox, etc.;
  • allergic reactions: to household chemicals, food, drugs, flowers, etc.;
  • vascular and blood diseases: impaired permeability, erythrocyte structure, etc.

There are several types of skin rash:

  • pustules - formations filled with purulent contents and are characteristic mainly of furunculosis, folliculitis, pyoderma, impetigo, acne;
  • bubbles - formations filled with liquid and small in size (up to 50 mm in diameter). Typically, blisters indicate the presence of diseases such as herpes, chickenpox, eczema, shingles, or allergic dermatitis;
  • blisters - usually triggered by an allergic reaction, occur with insect bites, nettle burns, toxicoderma. Blisters often go away on their own;
  • spots - they are characterized by local discoloration of the skin (redness or discoloration). Spots appear in dermatitis, vitiligo, typhus and typhoid fever, leukoderma, etc.;
  • nodules - characterized by changes in color, texture and structure of the skin and usually occur against the background of eczema, lichen planus, psoriasis and atopic dermatitis. The nodules are usually relatively small (up to 3 centimeters);
  • erythema - slightly raised above the surface of the skin and have a bright red color. They are characteristic of allergies to drugs, foods and other irritants;
  • nodes - formations can reach a diameter of 10 centimeters. Even after their healing, noticeable scars remain on the skin;
  • purpura - skin hemorrhage, observed in disorders of blood coagulation, vitamin C deficiency, leukemia and capillary toxicosis.

Syphilitic rash is considered separately. Syphilis and sexually transmitted infections can cause eruptions on the genitals and inner thighs, as well as on the skin around the anus. There are complaints about other symptoms of such pathologies. With allergic reactions, for example, the rash is concentrated mainly on the face and hands. Common infectious lesions are characterized by the appearance of formations on the abdomen and back.

Rashes are sometimes accompanied by hemorrhage, which is due to minor subcutaneous hemorrhage. The petechial anomaly appears on:

  • the lower back;
  • limbs;
  • under the breasts.

Separately, pathologies of the dermis in mononucleosis, meningitis, smallpox, rubella, as well as enterovirus and herpes infections are considered. The listed types of rash have their own symptoms. Therefore, an experienced dermatologist can determine the source of the problem by the localization of formations alone.

How long the irritating symptoms of such diseases will last is rather difficult to say, since it is necessary to take into account the general resistance of the body, the correct selection of therapy and related complications.

Eczema as the most common chronic dermatosis

Eczema is a chronic relapsing disease with acute inflammatory symptoms. It is characterized by polymorphism of morphological elements, which is formed as a result of a complex complex of etiological and pathogenetic factors. The term "eczema" was first used in the II century. n. e. to determine dermatoses with an acute course, and in the second half of the 18th century. scientists have identified eczema as a separate nosological form. The name comes from the Greek word "eczeo" - "boil", and reflects the most characteristic symptom of acute eczema - the presence of numerous bubbles that quickly open, resembling bubbles on the surface of boiling water.

Neurogenic and allergic mechanisms play a major role in the development of eczema. The disease is peculiar only to those who have a predisposition to it. Various factors of endogenous or exogenous origin can provoke the development of eczema. The role of a certain factor in each case of eczema manifests itself in different ways, which indicates the polyetiological nature of the disease.

The development of the disease is provoked by functional disorders of the nervous system, which is confirmed by the symmetry of the rash, severe itching with minor clinical manifestations, and favorable treatment results when using drugs that affect the nervous system.

Often the cause can be immunological disorders, including systems associated with antigens such as HLA-B22, B27, Cw1, in some cases, immunodeficiency states that develop against the background of a genetic predisposition as a result of violation of neurohumoral regulation. First of all, immunological disorders in eczema affect the cellular link: there is a decrease in the T-suppressor and T-helper activity of lymphocytes with a decrease in their number, which in turn leads to impaired humoral immunity. Inhibition of immunological reactivity contributes to:

  • activation of foci of chronic infection;
  • implementation of the interaction of antigens;
  • slowing down their excretion from the body, which becomes a predisposing factor for the development of eczema.

The probability of attachment of secondary microflora increases in the presence of dysfunction of nonspecific protective factors - polymorphonuclear leukocytes, lysozyme, complement factors, cationic proteins.

In the development of eczema, an allergic restructuring of the body plays a significant role, which can be manifested by increased sensitivity of the skin to a number of antigens. Initially, monovalent, and over time - polyvalent hypersensitivity of the skin to various external and internal factors, including autoallergy, is formed. For example, mucoproteins of the horny substance of skin scales can act as allergens.

Among exogenous factors, irritant chemicals and agents are most important:

  • resins
  • detergents
  • some metals (chromium, nickel, cadmium).

Some patients have an increased sensitivity to plants, in particular flowers, medicines, cosmetics. Some patients have increased sensitivity to ambient temperature, mechanical stimuli, ultraviolet radiation.

Allergic and simple dermatitis

Allergic dermatitis is a lesion of the skin as a result of repeated exposure to sensitizing irritants in individuals with hypersensitivity to various substances.

In the development of allergic dermatitis, there are:

  • hereditary predisposition to allergic reactions;
  • structural features of the skin (thickness of the stratum corneum);
  • pathology of the gastrointestinal tract;
  • decreased humoral and cellular immunity;
  • neuropsychiatric disorders;
  • dysbacteriosis;
  • foci of chronic infection: tonsillitis, caries, adnexitis, prostatitis, etc.;
  • increased sweating;
  • chronic skin diseases: true eczema, atopic dermatitis;
  • occupational sensitization.

Only an experienced dermatologist will help to distinguish manifestations of allergic dermatitis from acne and herpetic rash in order to exclude mumps, acute pustular lesions, psoriasis, venereal infections.

Sweating plays an important role in the process of sensitization (increased sensitivity to an allergen). People with excessive sweating are more likely to experience allergic contact dermatitis caused by clothing made from dyed fabrics, since the chromium salts contained in the dye can be extracted with sweat.

Foci of simple contact dermatitis form at the site of exposure to the primary irritant. It is distinguished by the absence of manifestations of an acute reaction and the further spread of the inflammation process after the exclusion of the irritating element. For example, when they often wear clothes made from synthetic fabrics, to the fibers of which the body is highly sensitive.

Mention should be made of seborrheic dermatitis as a disease caused by a specific fungus. Very often, the causes of its appearance are hormonal disorders, stressful conditions, diseases of the nervous system.

It is important to note that the treatment of any rash, including allergic, only with external agents in the form of gels, creams and ointments, is often ineffective. Since with this method of treatment, the symptoms in the form of a rash are eliminated, but not the causes of the pathology. Do not self-medicate and use advertising products! This can exacerbate the situation and change the picture of the true disease, leading to difficulties in diagnosis and delaying the start of adequate treatment for the rash.

Herpes simplex and folliculitis

Herpes simplex is a common viral disease characterized by rashes in the form of multiple clusters of vesicles on the mucous membranes or skin of a person.

According to statistics and various medical sources, the global prevalence of herpes viruses types 1 and 2 ranges from 65% to 90%.

The causative agent of this pathology are two types of herpesviruses: HSV-1 and HSV-2 (types 1 and 2). The herpes simplex virus is transmitted in the following ways:

  • contact, including sexual contact;
  • airborne (aerosol),
  • fecal-oral;
  • vertical (from mother to child);
  • blood contact, including in organ transplantation.

Penetration most often occurs by skin or mucosal contact. After overcoming the skin barrier, the virus moves through the blood and lymphatic channels to the tissues of the internal organs. Thus, it enters the nerve ganglia, invading the human genetic apparatus, after which it is completely impossible to remove the virus from the body. As with any DNA-containing viruses, the mechanism of reproduction of the herpes virus upon entering the cell is to launch a productive or lytic type of the disease. Infected areas can become inflamed, and after the body destroys the virus along with its cells, microscopic foci of necrosis form in the affected area.

As a rule, herpes simplex virus type 1 is the cause of such diseases:

  • acute herpetic stomatitis - infection most often occurs in childhood. The incubation period can last up to 5 days. Formed as a result of tissue damage by a virus, mucosal damage heals after 2-3 weeks;
  • Kaposi's eczema herpetiformis - the disease has symptoms similar to chicken pox: a specific rash, often turning into bleeding eczema, swollen lymph nodes, fever. Common in childhood, less common in adolescents and adults. Without timely treatment, it can lead to death;
  • herpetic keratoconjunctivitis (herpetic keratitis) - a characteristic feature of recurrent herpes simplex is the formation of a tree-like or serpentine lesion of the cornea and its clouding, which in turn can lead to blindness;
  • Herpes simplex encephalitis - the disease has a high risk of death. If the patient recovers, some neurological impairment may remain. As a rule, herpetic eruptions on the skin and mucous membranes are not observed;
  • labialis is the most common form of herpes type 1. The rash is formed at the junction of the skin and mucous membranes, often on the lips, skin of the cheeks, chin, in the area of ​​​​the wings of the nose. After healing, there are no traces of scars on the body.

Herpes simplex virus type 2 can manifest as follows:

  • genital herpes simplex, as well as herpes simplex virus type 1, manifests itself in the form of ulcers or blisters, which are located on the skin and mucous membrane of the genital organs, in the perineum, on the buttocks. Differs in frequent relapses;
  • herpes simplex virus in the newborn - occurs during vertical infection (from mother to child during childbirth), can be fatal;
  • Herpes simplex virus during pregnancy is dangerous because of the possibility of transmission to the child. Therefore, treatment should be started as early as possible to prevent serious consequences.

Any type of herpes simplex virus can infect different parts of the human body (eg, after orogenital intercourse).

The herpes simplex virus can be dangerous not only for humans, but also for animals. It often causes various diseases in dogs, rabbits, mice, guinea pigs, etc.

Before starting treatment, it is necessary to study the clinical picture of the manifestations of the virus, since the choice of a specialist depends on the location and complexity of the course of the disease. For the treatment of herpes simplex and herpes zoster, it is necessary to consult a dermatologist, for genital herpes - to a gynecologist, andrologist or urologist. Ophthalmoherpes may require the help of an ophthalmologist, and oral herpes - a dentist.

To prevent recurrence of herpes simplex, you can consult an immunologist, since the virus most often manifests itself against a background of reduced immunity. To do this, the doctor will determine the cause of the decrease in the body's defenses, give the necessary recommendations.

A rare form of herpes simplex is herpetic folliculitis, which develops against HIV infection. Its symptoms are multiple vesicles that quickly open and become covered with brown crusts. This form is typical only for men in the region of the lips and chin.

There are forms of herpes simplex, in which the disease stops at the initial stage. At the same time, a person experiences the following manifestations:

  • itchy red spots with close to rounded contours that disappear in 3-4 days;
  • single bubbles;
  • transient itching (resolves in 1-2 days).

Herpetic folliculitis must be differentiated from adolescent folliculitis, which can be caused by:

  • fungal infection;
  • viral infection;
  • bacterial infection;
  • caused by parasites, including mites.

Reduced immunity increases the risk of infection, as occurs in:

  • kidney disease;
  • scabies;
  • leukemia;
  • unbalanced pancreatic function;
  • vasculitis;
  • giardiasis;
  • cancer ;
  • liver destabilization;
  • infection with coxsackie virus.

The lesion is located at the mouth of the hair follicle, where a papule, pustule later forms, smoothly flowing after its rupture in erosion, furuncles.

Acne rosacea

Rosacea or rosacea is a chronic relapsing disease of the skin of the face, manifested as redness of the skin, followed by the appearance of abscesses and bumps on it. It has a staged flow pattern. It begins with the appearance of a "blush" on the face, and then gradually spreads to the skin of the nose, cheeks, forehead and chin. It can also appear on the ears, chest and back. Rosacea is incurable, but it is manageable.

Pathology is hereditary, and environmental factors, including stress, ultraviolet radiation, alcohol consumption, can also provoke its development. Fair-skinned people are most susceptible to the disease, but dark-skinned races are at risk of developing pathology. Rosacea is more often diagnosed in women; in men, this pathology can take on a more severe course.

Scientists from the American Academy of Dermatology, distinguish 4 stages of manifestation of rosacea:

  • erythematous-telangiectatic (redness of the skin, hyperemia and visible blood vessels);
  • papulo-pustular (redness, swelling, acne-like rash on the skin);
  • phymatous (thickening of the skin and uneven texture);
  • ocular (redness and irritation of the eyes, swelling of the eyelids and even barley-like formations along the edge of the eyelids).

It is recommended to undergo early diagnosis and treatment of the disease, as over time the symptoms will worsen: redness on the face can become a constant companion, many patients will begin to experience several symptoms at the same time, which complicates the treatment.

In addition to social problems, this pathology also has consequences for people's health. Patients with rosacea have a higher risk of developing cardiovascular disease, gastrointestinal problems, certain types of cancer, and other diseases. As a result of studies by Thai scientists, it was found that patients with rosacea had a higher percentage of predisposition to comorbidities than those who did not have rosacea:

  • 41% higher risk of developing hypercholesterolemia;
  • 35% of the occurrence of coronary heart disease;
  • by 17% - the development of arterial hypertension.

Also in another study, researchers found that women with rosacea were 1.59 times more likely to have thyroid cancer and 1.5 times more likely to have skin cancer compared to those who did not have a history of such a pathology.

There is evidence that the presence of rosacea may be associated with various inflammatory diseases:

  • diseases of the gastrointestinal tract;
  • ​​
  • allergies;
  • diabetes mellitus ;
  • female hormonal imbalance;
  • diseases of the genitourinary system;
  • respiratory pathology;
  • gastroesophageal reflux disease;
  • a form of brain cancer.

Although there is no cure for rosacea, symptoms must be controlled to prevent a complicated course of the disease. To do this, use various drugs for oral and topical use, including antibiotics. In difficult situations, dermatologists may use intense pulsed light, lasers, or other medical and surgical devices to remove visible blood vessels and reduce skin redness.

For cleansing the skin of individuals with rosacea, it is recommended to use mild and non-abrasive products, rinse with warm water, and pat the skin dry with a towel. To reduce skin irritation, a non-comedogenic sunscreen with an SPF of 15 or higher can be used. It is necessary to make changes in lifestyle, reducing stress for the body and the influence of external factors that provoke an exacerbation of the symptoms of rosacea.

Treatment and effective prevention

Despite the fact that there are still other variants of pathological conditions where a rash appears, their treatment still begins with a consultation with a specialist.

During the initial appointment, the attending physician will conduct the necessary comprehensive diagnostics, including the following measures:

  • life history;
  • physical examination;
  • examination of the skin using instrumental diagnostics;
  • biomaterial sampling for research.

After determining the type and cause of the rash, complex therapy is prescribed to combat the infectious agent (if it is detected):

  • desensitizing therapy;
  • anti-inflammatory treatment;
  • treatment of the affected area with local antiseptics, antimycotics, antiviral drugs.

Mandatory in an individual treatment plan are:

  • strengthening immunity;
  • vitamin therapy;
  • prevention of intestinal dysbiosis (disturbance of microflora).

In complex therapy, a therapeutic diet, general strengthening drugs, psychotherapy and physiotherapeutic methods of influence are prescribed.

Relapse prevention is done when the cause of the rash is known.

If the rash is caused by an allergic reaction,

  • avoid exposure to allergenic substances;
  • follow a doctor's advice on eating certain foods;
  • take recommended medications.

Skin rash caused by infections can be prevented by:

  • meticulous personal hygiene;
  • elimination of contact with carriers of the infection;
  • avoidance of large crowds of people during an exacerbation of infectious diseases;
  • timely vaccination;
  • refraining from using other people's personal hygiene products;
  • regular ventilation of premises;
  • correct diet with essential minerals, vitamins and other substances.

An important role in maintaining skin health and preventing its premature aging is played by regular good nutrition, personal hygiene, physical education and sports, sufficient long and sound sleep, as well as walking outdoors, sea and sunbathing.

Exclusion from the daily diet of hard-to-digest fats, spices, smoked meats, canned food, alcoholic beverages, coffee, chocolate and various extractive substances allows not only to normalize metabolic processes in the body, but also to prevent the development or exacerbation of skin diseases.

Sources
  1. Wikipedia. - Rash.
  2. MSD Handbook. - Description of the elements of the rash.
  3. ON Clinic. – What can cause a rash?