In the structure of total mortality, diseases of the cardiovascular system occupy a leading place. Therefore, it is important to carry out preventive measures and explain the need for the use of complex treatment programs (diet therapy, drug treatment and dosed physical activity) among the population. The key to the treatment of diseases of the heart and blood vessels is nutrition.
The diet, which is used for the treatment of the cardiovascular system, was developed by Manuil Pevzner, a Soviet scientist, professor and nutritionist. Acquaintance with the technique will allow you to minimize the risk of a heart attack, stroke, atherosclerosis, and more effectively undergo rehabilitation with already existing diseases of the cardiovascular system.
The use and purpose of the diet
The cycle of programs for diet therapy for various diseases of the heart and blood vessels is called "table number 10". Also, this diet is applicable in the nutrition of patients with I and IIa degree of circulatory failure. The use of table No. 10, together with drug therapy, in such patients can improve the course of the underlying disease and reduce the risk of complications. However, this diet is only suitable for compensated or subcompensated disease and should only be used when prescribed by a doctor.
The diet is aimed at restoring the normal functioning of the heart, normalizing blood circulation. Also, the diet of diet No. 10 improves the function of the liver and kidneys, helps to reduce swelling and shortness of breath, helps to reduce body weight if the patient has concomitant overweight or obesity. Such results are achieved by observing all the nutrition of table No. 10, which, first of all, are aimed at facilitating the work of the organs of the gastrointestinal tract and the cardiovascular system.
An unhealthy diet is often a risk factor for heart disease. Eating food rich in cholesterol, "fast" carbohydrates, as well as fried semi-finished products leads to pathological changes in all organs and systems of the human body, primarily the cardiovascular system. Proper diet should be an integral part of the treatment of cardiovascular diseases.
The Pevsner Diet #10 is considered a complete, balanced, reduced calorie diet. The decrease in energy value occurs due to the exclusion of fatty, fried, sweet. It is imperative to reduce the consumption of salt as much as possible, with the permission of the doctor, the patient is entitled to approximately 5 g of sodium chloride.
A large amount of water is undesirable, as excess fluid puts a strain on the digestive organs, liver and kidneys. 1.5 free fluids per day. Given the fact of a limited drinking regime, you need to reduce the number of first courses and drinks.
Vegetables and fruits can be consumed in moderation. The use of vegetable fiber in large quantities carries an extra load on the functioning of the gastrointestinal tract. Up to three small vegetable servings per day. Food must not be baked with a crust and fried. You can use all other types of cooking: steaming, stewing, in a slow cooker, boiling, grilling. Meat before use is recommended to pre-boil.
When eating on table No. 10, the same intervals between meals are maintained, portions are reduced in order to reduce the load on the digestive tract and cardiovascular system.
Responsibility on the part of the patient is very important. During the treatment period, it is highly undesirable to break into "tasty" and overeat, as this can prolong the period of therapy and aggravate general well-being.
List of products for the diet
According to the chemical composition, nutrition should be complete and balanced. The daily calorie intake during the treatment program should be within the normal range, approximately 2500 kcal.
The menu should consist of easy-to-digest foods and natural ingredients. Basically, the diet consists of:
- lean meats: trimmed veal, pork without veins and fascia, beef, chicken and skinless turkey, rabbit fillet ;
- lean fish, suitable: flounder, hake, carp, zander, perch, acne, etc.;
- seafood, seaweed ;
- salt-free bread, wheat of the first and second grinding (up to 150 g per day) in dried form, yesterday's baking, pasta;
- boiled and steamed eggs, up to 5 per week allowed;
- dairy products, cottage cheese, low-fat unsalted cheese, milk (with doctor's permission);
- cereals, semolina - limited;
- vegetables (except prohibited ones), green peas and white cabbage should be limited;
- fruits and berries, nuts, dried fruits.
Cereals can be cooked in milk or water, combined with boiled fish or meat, added to soups. It is not forbidden to boil pasta from durum wheat in moderation (in the finished form, it is permissible to use a portion of 1/2 cup), it can be from wheat or buckwheat flour. The first courses are recommended to be consumed when the portion is reduced to 150-200 g at a time, vegetables for soup should not be fried.
You need to exclude from the diet:
- lamb, meat with fat, duck, goose, offal;
- fatty fish, salted and smoked fish, caviar;
- preserves, pickles and marinades;
- any commercial sauces;
- fatty and salty cheese;
- confectionery, chocolate, baking;
- mushrooms, radishes, sorrel and spinach ;
- tonic drinks, sugary soda, cocoa;
- fresh baked goods;
- garlic and onions.
When preparing food, one should not forget that salt cannot be added. Garden greens, natural herbs are allowed. Sharp and bright-tasting spices are also best excluded, as they excite the appetite.
It is important to ensure that the body is saturated with useful components and nutrients. On the day you need to eat two or three servings of carbohydrate meals (with a predominance of complex), two servings of protein foods, snacks with vegetable fiber (vegetables, berries, fruits) are allowed. Periodically, you need to eat nuts and drink sour-milk drinks to avoid a lack of potassium. This macronutrient is extremely important for the heart, and the Potassium Diet is often prescribed to prevent its deficiency.
It is better to write the diet on a piece of paper and place it in a conspicuous place, it is advisable to eat at the same time. A sample menu for a week can be compiled in advance so that later you do not come up with dietary solutions on the go.
Lunch: fish steam cutlets, mashed potatoes, unsweetened berry juice.
For an afternoon snack: milk.
Dinner: stuffed peppers, tomato juice.
Snack: kiwi puree.
For an afternoon snack: some cottage cheese, one tomato.
Dinner: vinaigrette without onions and beans, a piece of boiled beef, a glass of natural juice.
Snack: unsweetened yogurt.
Lunch: boiled millet porridge with pieces of boiled veal, squash caviar.
For an afternoon snack: a few nuts, a decoction of wild rose.
Dinner: baked fish, boiled cauliflower.
In the morning: liquid semolina, a little honey or jam, unsweetened tea.
Snack: dried bread with cottage cheese.
Lunch: vegetarian beetroot, baked potatoes, fresh cucumber.
For an afternoon snack: homemade oatmeal cookies, milk tea.
In the morning: barley porridge, Greek salad without onions.
Snack: a glass of kefir, some berries.
For an afternoon snack: berry jelly, chamomile decoction.
In the morning: pureed rice porridge, kiwi slices, tea with milk.
Lunch: boiled beef stroganoff, boiled potato garnish.
For an afternoon snack: a glass of carrot-apple juice, walnuts.
Dinner: boiled fillet squid, green beans, milk.
In the morning: oatmeal in milk with honey, tea from linden.
Snack: grated carrots with raisins dressed with a spoonful of unsweetened yogurt.
Lunch: fish stewed in tomato juice, boiled mashed rice.
Dinner: baked rabbit with prunes, a glass of apple juice.
If whole cow's milk is intolerant, replace it with coconut, soy or almond milk.
It is impossible to starve on a diet, food must fully satisfy the needs of the body. Do not forget about the calculation of fluid, small deviations from the norm are not terrible, but for a speedy recovery it is better to follow the rules exactly.
Diet No. 10 for hypertension and other diseases can last as long as it takes to restore the patient's health. The exact duration of the program can only be determined by a doctor, as a rule, this technique is prescribed for several months or more.
Diet No. 10a
If the patient is diagnosed with IIb or III degree of circulatory failure, diet No. 10a is used. In this case, diet therapy becomes as gentle as possible for the work of the digestive organs, the cardiovascular system, because this condition is considered decompensated.
The food list remains similar to the tenth diet. The patient is forbidden to eat fatty, canned, fried, muffins and confectionery, hot spices and salt, organ meats. Alcohol, soda, energy drinks, coffee and green tea should be completely eliminated. Vegetables and fruits with coarse fiber and skin are limited.
It is advisable to wipe the cereals, they can be boiled with milk or water. Soups should be on a low-fat broth, it is advisable to cook them on vegetables or lean fish. The amount of dried bread is recommended to be reduced to 150 g. The daily calorie intake is reduced to 2000 kcal.
No more than a liter of water should be drunk per day. Fluid restriction is caused by impaired functioning of the kidneys and liver in these stages of the disease. Diet number 10a lasts until the patient feels better and the disease regresses. Often table 10a goes into the tenth diet.
Diet No. 10b
Table No. 10 is often prescribed for patients after myocardial infarction, as well as in the presence of rheumatic heart disease without circulatory failure. Compared to other diet options, diet number 10 is wider and the drinking regimen is not as rigid. It is important for the patient to increase in his diet foods high in potassium and magnesium : nuts, cereals, milk. The menu must contain protein foods, with a predominance of animal protein.
After a heart attack, the diet is prescribed in several stages. The diet consists of three phases, which are assigned in turn:
- The first phase. Lasts during the first week after myocardial infarction. The energy value is reduced to 1200 kcal, the patient is entitled to approximately 1.5 kg of food and 0.8 liters of liquid per day. Dishes are prepared in a pureed, chopped form, food is taken warm. Salt is not used at all, you can occasionally eat rye bread crackers, fresh vegetables are prohibited.
- Second phase. It proceeds for 2-3 weeks, and is called the subacute period. Daily calorie content increases to 1800 kcal, liquids can be consumed in a volume of 1 liter. Up to 3 g of sodium chloride is allowed. You can introduce fresh vegetables, increase the amount of protein foods and healthy polyunsaturated fats.
- The third phase begins in the fourth week after the infarction, during this period scarring occurs. The menu at this stage will be complete, the amount of food should increase to 2.2 kg, and water - 1.1 liters. The allowable salt intake is 6 g per day. The list of products is typical for table number 10.
During the rehabilitation period of a myocardial infarction, it is important to eat food with a low salt content, the main amount of sodium chloride will contain bread. It is important to adhere to this rule, because salt tends to retain fluid in the body and lead to edema, thereby further worsening the work of the damaged heart muscle. Meat and fish must be boiled before other types of cooking. It is allowed to fry foods in a small amount of vegetable oil. Porridge should be boiled and mashed. Vegetables can be eaten cooked or raw.
After the fourth week from the onset of the disease, the volume of fluid increases to 1.5 liters, all drinks and first courses must be taken into account. The daily calorie intake should be 2500 kcal, if the lifestyle is sedentary, this figure should drop to 2200 kcal.
During the course of treatment, the patient should be periodically observed by the attending physician in order to adjust the menu.
Table #10c is for patients with atherosclerosis. Such diet therapy is aimed at improving blood circulation, normalizing fat metabolism, restoring the functions of the liver and kidneys. All this slows down the progression of the atherosclerotic process in the vessels.
Depending on the condition of the patient and the presence of excess weight, the doctor may prescribe one of two options for this diet.
The first option is for patients who are not overweight. In this case, the caloric content and composition of the diet are within the normal range. You need to consume up to 2600 kcal per day, drink no more than 1.2 liters of liquid (including drinks and soups).
The second diet option is prescribed for overweight or obese patients and has a reduced daily calorie content of up to 2200 kcal, and in some cases up to 1800 kcal. The drinking regimen remains the same (as in other diet options). Table No. 10c provides for an increased consumption of vegetables in a boiled, chopped form, however, it is occasionally possible to use them raw as salads. Significantly reduce carbohydrates and fats.
The list of products and food rules remain the same for table #10. Coarse fibers of plant foods and meat should preferably be boiled before further cooking. Food is not salted, you can use sugar in its pure form up to 50 g per day.
It is important to exclude from the diet products containing oxalic acid, animals, cooking fats, as well as foods rich in “fast” carbohydrates and extractive substances (essential oils, spices and spices limit). Tonic drinks, strong tea, coffee are also sharply limited or excluded, as they have a stimulating effect on the central nervous system.
Cereals, cottage cheese and vegetable food with coarse fibers should be crushed, boiled, wiped. The amount of bread increases significantly (up to 300 g), but it should be consumed dried. You can eat lean dough, biscuits, yeast-free pastries. Under the taboo are: shortbread and puff pastry, sweet buns, store-bought pastries.
Meat by-products are added to the menu, they must be boiled before further use. They are allowed to bake, stew and eat with a side dish, add to homemade pies.
The diet may be changed or discontinued only with the approval of a physician.
Patients who used one of the programs of table No. 10 note, in addition to improving overall well-being, also weight loss, improved hair and skin condition. However, the independent use of the diet complex No. 10 is not permissible, as well as self-adjustment of the already prescribed diet.
Currently, not only the elderly, but also younger people are susceptible to diseases of the cardiovascular system. WHO statistics note that along with diabetes, heart disease is getting younger, i.e. affecting more and more young people. The root cause of this is a sedentary lifestyle, improper and excessive nutrition, smoking.
After recovery and the end of the prescribed diet, it is important to maintain a healthy lifestyle, eliminate bad habits, increase physical activity, and monitor nutrition. Get rid of the "garbage" in your plate: E-supplements, fast food, dyes, excess fat, so that you never return to therapeutic diets.