The section of medicine called “therapy” is aimed at studying, diagnosing, developing a system of conservative treatment, prevention and rehabilitation, studying the pathogenesis and etiology of various internal diseases and their clinical manifestations. The field of therapy includes the study of diseases of the cardiovascular system, respiratory system, digestive tract, connective tissue, kidneys, liver, endocrine system, as well as infectious diseases. Accordingly, a therapist is a general practitioner whose competence includes the study of the causal relationship between the mechanisms of disease of internal organs and systems. He is engaged in their diagnosis, treatment, prevention and, if necessary, directs a person to a narrower specialist, for example, a pulmonologist or a cardiologist.

The profession of a therapist is in great demand in the field of healthcare, since it is he who performs the initial appointment and physical examination of the patient, and, according to the symptoms, determines which of the narrow specialists should deal with this disease, including surgical focus.

Fields of activity: what does the therapist do

It is the therapist who is the “first line” of help to which a person with disturbing symptoms and a suspected illness gets to. In the process of interaction with the patient, the doctor carries out a whole range of measures to help the person who applied.

First of all the therapist begins to collect an anamnesis, that is, conducts a survey and a thorough study of the information obtained as a result in order to establish an overall picture of the symptoms. The next stage of communication with the patient involves a physical examination, during which palpation and percussion of the organs of the chest and abdominal cavities, retroperitoneal space, auscultation of the lungs, heart and main vessels are performed.

In addition, the therapist prescribes laboratory and instrumental examinations, for example, blood tests, urine, feces and other biological materials, ECG, radiography, ultrasound. Analyzing the collected data, the doctor decides whether to refer the patient to a specific specialist or to prescribe general therapeutic measures.

It is the therapist who maintains the primary medical documentation - the patient's outpatient card, which reflects the entire history of the disease, the diagnostic methods used and the prescribed treatment regimens, also determines the degree of temporary disability and the need to open a sick leave. He takes the main part in conducting medical examinations or medical examinations of the working and non-working population, issues various medical certificates, exemptions and conclusions in the medical book.

The competence of the therapist also includes establishing the need for hospitalization of the patient already at the first stages of the examination.

Organs and parts of the body treated by therapists

The general practitioner must understand a wide range of diseases and their manifestations. Focusing on diseases that are within the competence of a general practitioner, one can single out a violation in the work of:
  • of the respiratory system;
  • heart and blood vessels;
  • kidney and urinary system;
  • endocrine system;
  • circulatory system;
  • joints and muscles;
  • connective tissues.

Which diseases are treated by a doctor of therapeutic specialization

Most diseases, if they do not require surgical intervention by a surgeon, can be diagnosed and observed by a general practitioner, for example:

  • heart failure, anemia, post-infarction conditions;
  • nephritis, cystitis, pyelonephritis;
  • early stages of chronic kidney disease;
  • thyroid disease, diabetes mellitus, metabolic disorders;
  • pancreatitis, gastritis, duodenitis, cholecystitis, biliary dyskinesia and other destructive changes in the gastrointestinal tract;
  • arthrosis, arthritis, osteochondrosis, sprains, injuries and bruises;
  • pneumonia, bronchitis, bronchial asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, pneumoconiosis;
  • SARS and other respiratory infections of the upper respiratory tract;
  • violations of the functions of the connective tissue.

In addition, the general practitioner diagnoses and studies the symptoms that accompany many diseases, namely:

  • drowsiness;
  • irritability;
  • chronic fatigue;
  • puffiness;
  • depression;
  • sleep disorders;
  • febrile syndrome;
  • rash on the body of unknown etiology;
  • headaches and pain syndromes without clear localization.

Who is a district therapist, what does he do

A district therapist is a key link in the system of medical care for the population. This doctor takes the main part in the healing of the entire adult population living in a particular area - the area that is assigned to him, and, for this reason, district therapists can be called family doctors, because they constantly interact with the same circle of people, are familiar with their living conditions, lifestyle, previous diseases. Due to this, the local therapist can more quickly and accurately suggest the possible causes of certain diseases in a particular person.

The district doctor conducts dispensary registration and observation of chronic patients, monitors the timely implementation of preventive measures, vaccinations, performs primary diagnosis of the disease, prescribes and implements rehabilitation and preventive measures. After the patient's recovery, he assesses his condition and ability to work, issues him a certificate of incapacity for work or a certificate of release for presentation at the place of study or work.

General practitioner consultation for pregnant women

After the ob/gyn, the second most important examination of pregnant women occurs with the general practitioner. A consultation with this doctor in the general order takes place at least twice - when registering for pregnancy monitoring, and at the thirtieth week. A woman comes to the doctor's appointment with ready-made blood tests, urine tests, a coagulogram, blood biochemistry, and it is also necessary to undergo an electrocardiography procedure.

During the examination, the doctor collects information about past illnesses, examines medical records and test results: in this way, the doctor can determine the presence of any pathologies or dysfunctions of the body that are not related to the state of pregnancy. If any chronic diseases are detected that may pose a danger to the unborn child, the therapist may decide to hospitalize the woman in a hospital.

When examining a pregnant woman, the therapist must be very attentive to all manifestations that indicate the possible presence of diseases or abnormalities in the functioning of organs and systems, because any health problems of the expectant mother can negatively affect the development of the fetus. Another feature of the examination and treatment of pregnant women is that women in such a special position are not allowed to take all the drugs, and some research methods, for example, x-rays, are not recommended for them at all.

Various complications during pregnancy, such as anemia, arterial hypertension, toxicosis, hypoxia, require systematic monitoring by a therapist and the appointment of appropriate drugs that are allowed during pregnancy.

What symptoms should be treated by a therapist

In the normal state of a person, some deviations are sometimes allowed, for example, a rare feeling of fatigue or the appearance of muscle pain after excessively intense physical exertion. However, it is important to understand and distinguish those manifestations and sensations that may be signs of an incipient disease. So, the reasons for going to a therapist are:

  • unreasonable weight loss;
  • chronic fatigue, which is observed constantly for a long time;
  • increased fatigue, when even the usual household load causes a quick malaise;
  • pain sensations of any localization;
  • tinnitus, unmotivated weakness, numbness of extremities;
  • characteristic primary signs of disease, such as runny nose, sore throat in SARS;
  • constant subfebrile temperature or a sharp increase in temperature;
  • change in external characteristics of urine and feces;
  • decreased concentration and attention.

Other painful conditions, a feeling of heaviness, physical or mental discomfort are also indications for visiting a therapist. You can get to the doctor for an appointment and consultation at the clinic or hospital. If the symptoms of the disease are accompanied by a very high temperature or a pronounced deterioration in well-being, the doctor is called to the house for an initial examination and a decision on the need to place the patient in a hospital or stay on home treatment.

What methods of examination and treatment does the therapist use

In addition to the initial examination and questioning of the patient, in order to make a diagnosis, the doctor needs to collect all objective information about the current state of the body. To this end, the therapist prescribes some laboratory tests. According to the results of a general analysis of urine, it is possible to determine the state of the organs of the urinary system, as well as diseases of other organs and systems, manifested in the detection of certain elements in the urine sediment.

A complete blood count shows the number of blood cells, which can be used to conclude that there are viral or bacterial inflammatory processes in the body, as well as blood diseases, allergic reactions, or suspicion of malignant processes.

Stool analysis may show the presence of pathogens, parasites, or helminths.

A doctor may also order a blood sugar test if diabetes is suspected.

In addition, other functional methods of diagnosing diseases are used by therapists:

  • ultrasound;
  • radiography;
  • electrocardiogram;
  • fluorography;
  • computed tomography;
  • digital mammography;
  • magnetic resonance imaging;
  • other ways of examining the patient.

Further actions taken by the therapist are to make a diagnosis, after which the doctor decides whether he can continue further treatment of the patient on his own, or whether it is necessary to refer the patient to a specialist. For example, when determining ailments requiring surgical intervention, the surgeon is directly involved in the treatment process, who makes the decision to perform the operation.

The therapist does not prescribe surgical methods of treatment, his competence includes the development of a conservative treatment plan with the appointment of appropriate drugs in various forms - tablets, syrups, suspensions or solutions for intramuscular and intravenous administration. Also, the doctor, if there is evidence, writes out a referral for physiotherapeutic procedures, such as electrophoresis, magnetotherapy, ultrasound, quartz treatment, exercise therapy and massage.

As a preventive measure, the physician may determine the order of adult vaccination.

For patients who have undergone medical or surgical treatment, the doctor prescribes rehabilitation measures, including massage courses, special procedures, physical therapy, and also gives recommendations on limiting physical and labor stress, compiling a diet, sleep and recreation.

Recommendations of therapists to strengthen the overall resistance of the body

In most cases, preventing the onset and development of the disease is easier than treating it already in the active stage. Considering the modern lifestyle of people, which often lack elementary physical activity, doctors advise following simple rules to maintain the tone of the muscular corset and the musculoskeletal system, as well as the satisfactory function of the immune system.

Physical inactivity is a phenomenon that accompanies modern man due to a sedentary lifestyle. For those who spend most of the day in the office or at home at the computer in a passive state, regular exercise is a must. It can be training in the gym, morning exercises lasting 10-15 minutes, special physiotherapy exercises, yoga or walking in the fresh air.

Light tempering will also not harm the body, if you accustom yourself to it gradually. A contrast shower, visiting a bath and sauna, dousing with cold water and wiping with snow, provided there are no contraindications, help to cheer up and tone the body's defenses.

The general practitioner is the main element of the entire health care system on which it rests. This doctor should have practical and diagnostic skills to determine the disease and, if necessary, timely referral to a competent specialist to determine further treatment tactics.