tomato paste

Tomato paste - concentrated tomato puree obtained by boiling them. The share of solids in the product is 20-40%. Interestingly, the tomato is a biological relative of the potato and belongs to the nightshade family. Peru is considered the birthplace of tomatoes, where the plant was cultivated long before the advent of Europeans.

Tomato paste is used to produce tomato-based products: ketchup, juice, sauce, and is widely used in cooking. According to GOST, only salt, water and tomatoes can be included in its composition, without the addition of preservatives, dyes and flavor enhancers. The product is packaged in glass and tin cans.

The darker the color of the tomato paste and the thinner the consistency, the lower its grade. The highest quality product has an orange-red tint, thick structure, and the lowest quality has a brown color and a liquid consistency.

Useful properties

The main advantages of tomato paste are to improve the taste and appearance of dishes by giving them sourness and coloring them red. As a result, the food becomes more appetizing, emits a pleasant aroma, which contributes to the production of digestive juices that improve its absorption.

Tomato paste contains the same vitamins as tomatoes. Most of all, ascorbic acid is concentrated in it (45 ml per 100 g, which covers 50% of the daily requirement of the body for the vitamin). It is a powerful antioxidant that stimulates the immune system. It helps to cope with foreign and pathogenic microorganisms that penetrate tissues and organs from the environment, with food. Ascorbic acid prevents a wide range of diseases, ranging from influenza, SARS, colds and ending with oncology.

The effectiveness of vitamin C increases in the presence of beta-carotene and tocopherol, which are concentrated in tomato paste and increase its antioxidant properties.

Thiamine accelerates metabolism, improves carbohydrate metabolism, promotes weight loss. Niacin promotes the production of hormones, reduces the level of "bad" cholesterol. In addition, the composition of tomato paste includes lycopene (160 mg per 100 g), which exhibits antioxidant activity. The carotenoid pigment reduces the level of the oxidative process, protects DNA, slows down the development of atherosclerosis, prevents oncogenesis, improves the functioning of the heart muscle, and normalizes blood pressure. Lycopene reduces the risk of developing tumors of the stomach, lungs andprostate, ischemic and eye diseases, peroxidation in the tissues of the eye (lens).

Chemical composition

The nutritional value of tomato paste is 102 kcal per 100 g. The energy ratio B:L:U is 19%:0%:75%. This is a dietary product.

To thicken the texture of the paste, unscrupulous manufacturers introduce an additional ingredient into its composition - starch, which increases the nutritional value of the paste. Before buying a product, you should carefully read its labeling. If the composition contains other components besides water, tomatoes and salt, refuse to purchase such products. Most likely it was prepared with violations of production technology.

A safe daily dose of a natural product is 50 g.

Table No. 1 "Nutritional value of tomato paste"
Components Content in 100 grams of product, grams
Water 70.0
Carbohydrates 19.0
Mono- and disaccharides 18.0
Proteins 4.8
Ash 2.7
Organic acids 2.4
Dietary fiber 1.1
Starch and dextrins 1.0
paste”
Name Nutrien content commodities in 100 grams of product, milligram
Vitamins
Ascorbic acid (C) 45.0
Niacin (B3) 1.9
Beta-carotene (A) 1.8
Tocopherol (E) 1.0
Pantothenic acid (B5) 0.85
Pyridoxine (B6) 0.63
Riboflavin (B2) 0.17
Thiamine (B1) 0.15
Folic acid (B9) 0.025
Biotin (H) 0.0045
Macronutrients
Potassium 875
Chlorine 232
Phosphorus 68
Sulfur 51
Magnesium 50
Calcium 20
Sodium 15
Trace elements
Iron 2.3
Zinc 1.1
Copper 0, 46
Manganese 0.2
Molybdenum 0.03
Cobalt 0.025
Iodine 0.009

Tomato paste is recommended to be purchased in a transparent glass jar, which allows for a primary inspection of the product. It should be of a homogeneous consistency, reddish-red color, thick. The shelf life of the corked product in glass containers is 2 years from the date of manufacture (at a storage temperature of 0-25 degrees), in metal - 1 year, in aluminum - 6 months. An open jar is stored in the refrigerator for no more than 2 weeks, then its top may become moldy.

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If tomato paste smells like fresh tomatoes, it means that flavorings have been introduced into its composition, hiding errors in cooking. You should not eat such a product. In addition, to give a bouquet of taste and smell, the desired consistency to the product, unscrupulous manufacturers add dyes, flavor enhancers, starch, exotic carrageenan, fruit puree that are not related to tomatoes. The result is a commercial product that attracts the attention of the consumer, but is of no value to the human body.

Potential harm

Tomato paste contains organic acids ( citric, malic ), which irritate the mucous membranes lining of the digestive tract. When the product is abused, the acidity of the stomach increases and the person experiences heartburn.

In addition, if chemical ingredients (thickeners, flavor enhancers, preservatives, stabilizers, flavoring agents, colorants) are added to tomato paste, it cannot benefit a person.

Contraindications for use: stomach ulcer, individual intolerance, cholelithiasis.

Remember, tomatoes, like citrus fruits, -the strongest allergens that can cause anaphylactic shock and adverse reactions (rash, itching, redness of the skin, watery eyes, runny nose, cough). In the event of these reactions, immediately eliminate the vegetable from the diet and consult a doctor.

How to cook it yourself

Only ripe, good quality tomatoes are used to make tomato paste. Brown, greenish, broken and rotten fruits are not suitable.

Tomato paste cooking recipes

“Classic diet”

Ingredients: tomatoes of the “cream” variety - 5 kg.

Cooking principle:

  1. Wash tomatoes, cut into 4-6 parts. Place in a non-stick coated container.
  2. Put the pot on medium heat, cook for half an hour until the vegetables soften.
  3. Remove from stove. When the skin moves away from the pulp, grind the boiled tomatoes through a sieve to remove seeds and skin.
  4. Put the resulting tomato juice on fire again, boil until it thickens. To prevent the workpiece from burning, it is periodically stirred. Simmer for 4.5 hours until a thick paste is obtained.
  5. Sterilize jars, boil lids. Arrange the paste in containers, tightly close, wrap, leave for a day.

To improve the taste, salt (40 g), ground red pepper (5 g), grated garlic (1 head) are added to the tomatoes.

“Spicy for the winter”

Ingredients:

  • tomatoes - 2 kg;
  • salt - 20 g;
  • garlic - 1 head;
  • onion - 3 pcs.;
  • red ground pepper - 2.5 g;
  • vegetable oil - 100 ml.

Cooking sequence:

  1. Scald tomatoes with boiling water, peel.
  2. Remove the husk from the onion and garlic. Cut the first, pass the second through the press.
  3. Twist the tomatoes through a meat grinder, boil with onions for 20 minutes, rub through a sieve.
  4. Add vegetable oil, garlic, spices, salt to the resulting mass. Boil the pasta for another 15 minutes.
  5. Steam the jars, sterilize the lids.
  6. Spread the tomato paste in glass containers, roll up, cover for a day. In order to avoid the reproduction of pathogenic microorganisms, the preservation should be stored in a warm place (at positive temperature) for no more than 2 years.

Tomato paste is a versatile product in cooking, which is used to prepare sauces for vegetables and meat products, adjika, ketchup, gravy and dressings for pasta, borscht, pizza, stuffed cabbage, kharcho, ratatouille, saltwort, homemadeblanks (stuffed peppers, eggplant caviar, lecho).

It is interesting that the tomato was previously considered an ornamental plant with poisonous fruits, it was grown in pots or gardens solely for decoration of the adjacent area. In 1822, the myth about the toxicity of tomatoes was dispelled and the product began to rapidly gain popularity.

Conclusion

Tomato paste is a canned mass obtained from mashed, boiled tomatoes. The higher the concentration of dry matter in the product (30-45%), the better it is. This indicator indicates the number of used tomatoes for making pasta. For the first time, a prototype of tomato puree appeared in the 19th century in Italy, when local chefs mixed the concentrate with garlic, pepper and olive oil.

Currently, tomato paste is produced in the following varieties: first, highest and extra. The latter is distinguished by a rich orange-red color, thick consistency and provides the greatest value for the human body.

A quality natural product contains only 3 components: tomatoes, water, salt.

Tomato paste is a storehouse of dietary fiber, organic acids, lycopene, vitamins A, E, B, C, macro- and microelements. According to scientists, the product has a strong antioxidant effect, protects the cells of the body from premature aging and the harmful effects of the environment, helps to overcome stress, and reduces the risk of cancer and heart disease. For the best effect, it is recommended to combine the intake of fresh tomatoes and sauces based on them.

Remember, the antioxidant lycopene can only be absorbed in the presence of fat.

Pasta improves digestion, stimulates the production of gastric juice, improves metabolism. It is contraindicated in people with ulcers, cholelithiasis, gastritis and high acidity of the stomach.

Sources
  1. Electronic fund of legal and normative-technical documentation. - Interstate standard (GOST): Concentrated tomato products.
  2. Health website Healthline. – Tomatoes 101: nutrition facts and health benefits.
  3. U. S. National library of medicine. – Dietary tomato paste protects against ultraviolet light-induced erythema in humans.
  4. Scientific electronic library "CyberLeninka". - Therapeutic and preventive value of tomatoes.
  5. Sciencedirect Internet resource. – Investigation of the antioxidant properties of tomatoes after processing.
  6. Spandidos Publications. – Platelets and atherogenesis: Platelet anti-aggregation activity and endothelialprotection from tomatoes (Solanum lycopersicum L.).
  7. U. S. National library of medicine. – Effect of lycopene and tomato products on cholesterol metabolism.
  8. U. S. National library of medicine. – Antioxidative properties of lycopene and other carotenoids from tomatoes: synergistic effects.
  9. Institute for the promotion and preservation of the diversity of chemical compounds, Molecular Diversity Preservation International (MDPI). – Tomato as potential source of natural additives for meat industry.
  10. U. S. department of agriculture. – Tomato products, canned, paste, without salt added.
  11. Scientific electronic library "CyberLeninka". - Comparative analysis of visual and instrumental assessment of the color of tomato paste.
  12. U. S. National library of medicine. – Tomato allergy: clinical features and usefulness of current routinely available diagnostic methods.