Traumatology is one of the oldest specializations in the medical field. Its main task is to help patients who have experienced injuries in everyday life or while performing professional tasks.
In addition to the traditional treatment of injuries of the musculoskeletal system, the competence of this doctor also includes assistance with frostbite and burns of any nature and area of damage. Depending on the cause and degree of damage, all citizens arriving at his reception are divided into two groups: planned and emergency.
The first category in case of emergencies can “be patient”, skipping in line those who were delivered after accidents or falls from a height. If the victim requires immediate hospitalization, then he is brought to the inpatient department by ambulance and immediately sent to the operating room.
There, a traumatologist and a surgeon take over. Their well-coordinated collective work allows not only to save the life of the victim, but also to guarantee the restoration of a good quality of life in the future under favorable circumstances.
Sometimes a traumatologist has one more postscript - an orthopedist. Adjacent specialization provides for the need to have an almost identical stock of knowledge and practical skills. Small clinics usually take advantage of this. They have two submitted vacancies successfully combined by the same expert.
The main range of activities of such a professional is the diagnosis and therapy of a number of organs. Most often, he has to deal with bone fractures of varying severity.
In this situation, the integrity of one or more bones is violated. If even a part of the skeleton fails, then the protective functions lose stability and the internal organs remain under the threat of destabilization. It is believed that the most terrible thing is for those victims who have received an injury to the skull or spine. In the most terrible scenario, they lead a person to disability, or are the root cause of death.
In addition to performing a range of tasks on the bone skeleton, the doctor is also involved in helping with deviations in the work of tendons and ligaments. And although this category of cases is considered one of the most popular, fortunately, they do not lead to death. The maximum at the advanced stage is a deterioration in the quality of life.
Often such injuries affect the health of athletes. That is why they always have a specialized sports traumatologist with them. He draws up a schedule of preventive examinations in order to maintain the health of the ward at the proper level. He is also responsible for reducing the risk of possible injuries.
No less often, those who have encountered dislocations of bones or joints turn to the specialist's office. Here, despite the stereotype, many appeals are recorded not only from connoisseurs of an active lifestyle. The cause for damage is not only inaccurate mechanical action.
Those who have diagnosed arthrosis or arthritis, or a predisposition to it, rush to make an appointment with a traumatologist on this issue.
It is much more difficult for those who have become victims of torn ligaments. This is confirmed by the reviews of those who have experienced this. The underlying reasons for such a diagnosis are three points:
- sudden lifting of weight.
Having understood the basics of what a traumatologist treats, some are later surprised that the treatment of burns and frostbite is also the competence of this narrow specialist. In the first case, the injury involves damage to the external part of the body, and in rare cases, internal organs. The reason for this is exposure to high temperatures, chemicals or electric current.
Frostbite works in the opposite way. This applies to skin lesions at low temperatures. Most often, such a deviation is recorded in climbers or alcoholics, who, due to intoxication, do not realize the risks of being in the cold.
Conscious citizens go to hospitals on their own if they have suspicions of various diseases of the musculoskeletal system. Preventive examinations are useful, which are practiced among people from the high-risk group: athletes, the elderly.
Among the most common ailments that a good doctor diagnoses quickly are:
- herniated disc;
- bone tumors.
Osteoporosis just belongs to the category of those diseases that are more characteristic of people of retirement age who do not follow their own full-fledged diet. With the rapid development of the disease, bone tissue turns into a fragile material that is damaged even with minimal loads.
But even a pediatrician can diagnose osteomyelitis. This applies to inflammatory processes in the bone structure. The reason for it are various infectious interventions. The leaders here are the bacteria staphylococcus and streptococcus.
Another disease characterized by inflammation is arthritis. It develops slowly and at the same time covers the articular components. According to a similar principle, spondylitis develops, which describes inflammation of the vertebral joints.
Separate consultation is required if a patient has a herniated disc. This pathology has one distinguishing feature - the bulging of the intervertebral disc in the lumen of the spinal column.
Another common disease of the articular type is arthrosis. It is accompanied by the destruction of the joint with the subsequent violation of the functional duties entrusted to it.
Those who are going to make an appointment with a traumatologist because of progressive gout will have to come to terms with the fact that periodically the disease will still make itself felt. For the most part, this deviation affects men who experience the accumulation of uric acid in the joints. All this leads to irregular bouts of pain, followed by inflammation and deformity of the joints.
One of the most difficult options for treatment is called bone tumors, which, as elsewhere in oncology, are divided into benign and malignant. The former most often result in:
If such oncology is caught in time, it will be cured without serious consequences for other body systems. The best modern techniques will help in this. Even malignant tumors like bone myeloma can be neutralized if you consult a doctor at the earliest stages of the disease.
Reasons for admission
Each patient decides for himself whether he should be treated by a paid doctor or can be limited to the services of an expert from a public clinic. Regardless of who was given preference, the reasons for visiting the examiner's office remain identical.
First of all, we are talking about getting an injury up to a simple bruise. The latter option is able to hide many dangers, including:
- torn articular ligaments.
All of the above require immediate attention, so the medical center should be contacted immediately after the incident. Otherwise, the patient will develop the following negative symptoms over the next few hours:
- pain syndrome;
- redness of the skin;
It is also necessary to sound the alarm in case of fractures. Moreover, they are not always visible immediately, since fractures are closed and open. The first variation has a lot of complications that arise due to the inattention of the victim. Due to the fact that self-closed fractures are quite problematic to diagnose, people put off visiting a traumatologist until the last.
Asas recommend going to the hospital immediately, and in case of acute pain syndrome, generally call the doctor at home. This is especially true for situations with closed injuries, which can be more significant than they seem. Their characteristic signs are called increasing pain and swelling of the skin at the site of the alleged fracture.
With an open fracture, everything is much simpler, because when you see blood and an open wound, it immediately becomes clear that it is impossible to delay calling an ambulance. If you try to settle everything on your own, then in the future this may lead to improper fusion of bone tissue. This will provoke various accompanying inconveniences, which will have to be corrected surgically - by breaking the bone again and applying the correct splints.
Particularly terrible injuries are injuries to the brain, spinal cord and spine. Here, seconds count.
If the patient is concerned about suspicions about possible deviations of a chronic or hereditary nature, then an emergency appointment can be postponed by signing up for a routine examination. You can also do this through the official website if you have chosen service in a private medical institution. Such a clinic conducts appointments on a paid basis, but does not require any additional payments for a consultation.
You should check the health of your bones and joints if you have at least a few of the following symptoms:
- aching pain in the back or limbs;
- limitation of joint activity;
- articular deformities or edema;
- growths on the bones.
But even without this, if you want to undergo a preventive examination, no one will forbid a person who cares about his health to get checked.
Algorithm of admission
Whether it is the chief traumatologist of the department, or an ordinary “yesterday student” of a medical university, the algorithm for receiving planned patients remains identical.
First, there is an initial consultation. During it, the applicant talks about the accumulated thematic complaints, shows a medical card and mentions whether he has a hereditary predisposition corresponding to suspicions.
The traditional external examination follows. Usually it is not enough even if there is a vast experience behind the shoulders of a traumatologist. To refute or confirm conjectures, additional clinical studies will be required:
- CT if head injury is suspected;
- complete blood count to establish hidden inflammatory processes.
Those who are suspected of having osteoporosis should have their bone density tested. In medical terminology, the procedure is called densitometry.
Patients who come in from the street and are considered urgent are usually sent immediately to either the trampoint or intensive care unit. Particularly long queues at the trampoint can be seen in winter, when there is ice. At this time, older residents who are at particular risk should be vigilant. Their bone tissue recovers more slowly than that of young people.
Methods of treatment
One of the most modern methods of diagnosis and treatment is arthroscopy. It involves the introduction of a flexible conductor through a puncture with a miniature camera. An image of what is happening around the affected joint is displayed on the screen. This allows you to find the source and cause of pain, inflammation.
If it turns out that the pain in the knee joint is caused by a damaged meniscus, then the affected parts are removed on the spot, or the previously broken integrity is restored. So arstroscopy smoothly flows into arthroplasty.
The latter refers to radical methods of repairing a damaged joint. Instead of a worn mechanism, a metal or polymer substitute is installed.
But in some cases it is enough to involve conservative methods of treatment. They provide tight bandages and various fixators for the damaged area. It does not do here without the involvement of pharmacological agents according to the prescription of the attending physician.