An ultrasound doctor is a specialist who deals with the diagnosis of diseases and various conditions of the human body using ultrasound diagnostics, or sonography.
Sonography is often referred to as ultrasound imaging, an ultrasound doctor uses a device known as a transducer that passes over the surface of the skin to capture images of the underlying structures of the body.
It emits high-frequency noise that is not perceived by the ear, and detailed images provide information regarding the consistency, shape and structure of body organs and soft tissues. The ultrasound doctor evaluates the results of the ultrasound examination to diagnose any health problems in the patient.
Scope of ultrasound doctor's diagnosis
Ultrasound doctor deals mainly with soft tissue diagnostics, but the procedure can be used to visualize almost all body tissues and organs.
An ultrasound doctor diagnoses diseases of the muscles, ligaments, tendons and joints, the brain and spinal cord, abdominal organs, kidneys, liver and pancreas, breast, heart, blood vessels.
Diseases diagnosed by an ultrasound doctor
An ultrasound specialist diagnoses a patient's abdominal diseases to evaluate mild tissues, organs and blood vessels of this area of the body. Abdominal ultrasound helps in the diagnosis and treatment of diseases associated with the urinary tract, kidneys and male reproductive organs.
Additionally, the procedure is used to evaluate the pancreas and gallbladder, as well as the liver, spleen, and other abdominal organs. It is a safe and non-invasive test for abdominal pain and edema, to monitor conditions such as cysts, benign tumors, gallstones, and cirrhosis.
Abdominal ultrasonography is also performed to identify blockages, plaques, and blood clots in patients' abdominal arteries and veins. In addition to diagnostic information, visual ultrasound guidance during biopsy and other invasive procedures can be provided.
It also provides real-time visualization of blood flow, bowel movements and internal organs caused by respiration.
Breast ultrasound is a frequent adjunct to cancer screening because it provides good images of all areas of the breast, including those that are difficult to see on a mammogram.
Ultrasound specialists in this field perform additional imaging for women with dense breasts who are difficult to detect breast cancer with mammography. Such images often help differentiate fluid-filled cysts from solid masses.
Breast sonography reduces the need for biopsy and provides real-time visual guidance during essential biopsies.
Diseases of the nervous system
Neurosonography provides important data for the diagnosis of diseases affecting the brain, spinal cord, and adjacent areas. Therefore, it is often used to study the blood flow of the vessels of the nervous system and to identify and understand disorders such as stroke, brain injury, brain tumors and aneurysms. Neurosonography can be helpful in evaluating patients with disorders of the spine and central nervous system, including paralysis, multiple sclerosis, herniated discs, compressed vertebrae, and myelitis. Patients with pain and limited mobility are often scanned to ensure early detection of an aneurysm or stroke.
Diseases of the female reproductive system
Gynecological ultrasound provides images of the pelvic organs, while in pregnant women, obstetric ultrasound is used to monitor the health of the developing fetus.
These techniques provide confirmation of pregnancy, monitor fetal growth and development, take measurements to determine gestational age and fetal position, evaluate the placenta, and identify any abnormalities.
The sonographer also identifies multiple pregnancies and provides parents with the first visual contact with their unborn child. In non-pregnant women, imaging is used to evaluate problems such as endometriosis, uterine fibroids, ovarian cysts, ectopic pregnancy, and cancer.
Diseases of the cardiovascular system
Echocardiography uses ultrasound technology to assess the structure and dynamic function of blood flow to and from the heart, as well as heart valves and other components of the cardiovascular system. systems. This type of ultrasound is called echocardiography or simply echocardiography.
Ophthalmic ultrasound can detect a wide variety of abnormalities and help optimize the management of some of these conditions. The method provides an effective intraocular examination when a cataract or vitreous hemorrhage does not allow examination of the eye.
Ophthalmic sonography typically scans patients in a dimly lit room, so care should be taken in cases of eye injury. The ultrasound doctor can choose from five different ultrasound scans depending on what abnormality or procedure is being performed. For example, the scan may include measuring the size, thickness, or curvature of eye components. The study can also provide a complete view of the entire eyeball and evaluate blood flow and circulation among other parameters.
Vascular sonography uses ultrasound imaging to evaluate the body's circulatory system. A vascular ultrasound specialist uses a variety of ultrasound procedures and clinical examination techniques to evaluate pulse and blood flow in tissues and organs, including the brain, abdomen, and extremities. Real-time vascular sonography images are vital to understanding many disorders and provide a safe, non-invasive approach in helping clinicians diagnose vascular problems other than the heart.
Ultrasound is usually referred by a specialist physician, such as a surgeon for suspected appendicitis, or a gynecologist for suspected pregnancy.
But any person can apply to this specialist himself and get his qualified opinion, and after discovering the problem, turn to a doctor who specializes in the treatment of this disease. Indications for ultrasound examination are:
- delayed menstruation;
- suspected abdominal tumors;
- feeling of bitterness in the mouth;
- sensation of full stomach;
- thyroid enlargement;
- inflammation of the prostate gland;
- monitoring the effectiveness of treatment;
- pregnant and lactating breast examination, etc.
Ultrasound diagnostic methods
In transvaginal ultrasound, a transducer is placed in the vagina to get better images of the uterus and ovaries. "Transvaginal" means internal examination "through the vagina". Unlike conventional abdominal or pelvic ultrasound, where the ultrasound transducer or transducer is placed on the outside of the pelvis, this procedure involves inserting the ultrasound probe 5-7 cm into the vaginal canal.
Transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) is a procedure that uses sound waves to create an image of the prostate and surrounding tissue. Typically, the procedure requires the insertion of an ultrasound probe into the patient's rectum. The probe then sends and receives sound waves through the rectal wall to the prostate gland, which is located just in front of the rectum.
Transesophageal echocardiography uses a transducer probe in the esophagus so that sonography can produce clearer images of the heart. In addition, ultrasound technology has been improved for various types of images.
Doppler is a special type of ultrasound that produces images of blood flow through vessels. This study helps doctors evaluate blood flow in the major arteries and veins of organs and limbs. During pregnancy, Doppler ultrasonography may be used to analyze fetal blood flow if abnormalities are suspected.
Bone sonography helps doctors diagnose osteoporosis. An echocardioscopy is used to view the heart. A heart ultrasound provides the doctor with clear, moving images of the heart to help the doctor assess the condition. The most common type of cardiac ultrasound is non-invasive and very easy on the patient. A gel is used to slide the transducer over the chest area, allowing reflected sound waves to provide a live image of the heart and valves.
Cardiac ultrasound uses the same technology as for intrauterine fetal examination.
Cardiac ultrasound is safe and can be used in patients of all ages.
3D imaging adds volume to a traditional ultrasound image, and thus creates 3D interpretations rather than the usual 2D flat images. 4D ultrasound allows you to show a 3D image in motion.
3D and 4D scans can see the skin, not the inside of the baby. You can see the shape of the mouth and nose of the unborn child. 3D and 4D scans may provide more information about the known anomaly. Because these scans can show more detail from different angles, they can help diagnose cleft lip, allowing doctors to plan surgery right after birth.
Benefits of ultrasound
The procedure is usually painless and does not require injections or incisions. Patients are not exposed to any harmful radiation, including ionizing radiation, making this procedure safer than diagnostic methods such as x-rays and CT scans. In fact, there are no known harmful effects when used as directed by this type of health care provider.
Ultrasound makes it possible to see soft tissues that do not show up on x-rays. Ultrasound is widely available and less expensive than other methods. With the help of ultrasound technology, preventive examinations of pregnant women and diagnosis of disorders are performed.
In addition to examining pregnant women, ultrasound diagnostics are used to diagnose other diseases by creating images of organs and tissues of the body. Qualified sonographers play a vital role in ensuring a proper diagnosis.
Qualification requires both social and technical approaches, since the doctor must correctly position the patient in order to obtain the best image, as well as inform the patient about the results of the ultrasound diagnosis.