Vinegar is a food product that can claim to be one of the most ancient in the world. Like wine, it has been used by man since time immemorial. At the same time, it is used in a wide variety of fields, and not only in cooking. Spice, seasoning, disinfectant and cleaning agent, medical product, cosmetic "magic wand" - these are just a small fraction of the options for using this substance.

The distinguishing characteristic of this liquid is its specific smell. This product is obtained either chemically or naturally, by the action of acetic acid bacteria on alcohol-containing raw materials. Accordingly, vinegar is divided into synthetic and natural, which, in turn, there are many types, depending on what kind of ingredient it is based on.


The earliest mention of this product dates back to 5000 BC. e. It is believed that his "homeland" is ancient Babylon. Local residents learned how to make not only wine, but also vinegar from dates. They also insisted on spices and herbs, and used it not only as a seasoning that emphasizes the taste of dishes, but also as a kind of preservative that promotes longer storage of products.

One of the myths about the legendary Egyptian queen Cleopatra tells that she remained beautiful and young because she drank wine in which she dissolved pearls. However, as practice shows, the pearl will not dissolve in wine, while in vinegar - without problems. But a person simply physically cannot drink this substance in a concentration that can dissolve pearls - the throat, esophagus and stomach will suffer. So, most likely, this beautiful story is just a legend.

But the fact that Roman legionnaires were the first to use this product to disinfect water is true. They were the first to use vinegar to disinfect wounds.

Calorie content and chemical composition

The calorie content and chemical composition of vinegar varies depending on which of its many types we are talking about. speech. If the purified synthetic product contains only water and acetic acid, then the natural product contains a variety of food acids ( malic, citric, etc.), and also micro and macro elements.

Types and varieties

As noted above, all types of vinegar are divided into two categories depending on which method the product is obtained: synthetic or natural.

Synthetic vinegar

Synthetic, also known as table vinegar, is still the most common in the post-Soviet territory. It is he who is most often used in canning vegetables, as a baking powder for dough and flavoring. It is also used for medical purposes.

Such a product is obtained as a result of a chemical reaction - the synthesis of natural gas or the sublimation of wood. This technology was first used back in 1898, since then some changes have been made to it, but the essence itself has remained unchanged.

It is noteworthy that in terms of taste and aroma characteristics, the product of synthetic origin “dry” loses to its natural counterpart. At the same time, he has one important trump card: the fact that the technological process of its production is not expensive.

The main use of synthetic vinegar is cooking. It is mainly used as an ingredient in marinades in the process of preparing dishes from meat, fish and vegetables. Due to the disinfecting properties of the substance, products that have been pickled with it have a longer shelf life.

In addition, synthetic vinegar is used in the household for disinfection and many other purposes.

The calorie content of this product does not exceed 11 kcal per 100 g. Of the nutrients, it contains only carbohydrates (3 g), and proteins and fats are absent.

If we talk about natural species, then the raw materials for their production are grape wine, cider from apples, beer must and various fruit and berry juices, where fermentation has begun.

Apple cider vinegar

Today it is available on the market in two form factors: in liquid form and in tablets. Still, liquid apple cider vinegar is traditionally more popular. It has many areas of use: from cooking to cosmetology and nutrition.

Cooks add this product to sauces while preparing meat and fish dishes, and also use it for preservation - thanks to this ingredient, vegetables acquire a special aroma and piquant flavor. Also, an apple-based product is added to puff pastry, used for dressing salads, as a seasoning for dumplings.

Apple cider vinegar has strong anti-inflammatory and antifungal properties. Therefore, on its basis, a solution is made for gargling with tonsillitis and tonsillitis.

This product is useful for anemia, as it is a natural source of iron. Also contained in it pectins prevent the absorption of fats and the formation of atherosclerotic plaques on the walls of blood vessels, reducing the risk of heart attacks and strokes.

Due to the fact that the pH of this substance is practically the same as the Ph of the upper layer of human skin, this product can be used for cosmetic purposes. For example, to restore tone to the skin, wipe it every day with a weak solution of apple cider vinegar.

The presence in the composition of the product of a number of organic acids, minerals, as well as vitamins A, C and group B brought him popularity among adherents of healthy eating. In particular, it is he who is used for weight loss, which will be discussed below.

Calorie content of apple cider vinegar is 21 kcal per 100 g of product. Proteins and fats are absent in its composition, and carbohydrates are 0.93 g.

Balsamic vinegar

it was used exclusively as a remedy. It is first mentioned in manuscripts dating back to the eleventh century.

It is obtained from grape must, which undergoes a lengthy processing procedure. First, it is filtered, then fermented in larch barrels, after which it is poured into oak wood containers, where it matures for several years. The result is a dark thick and viscous liquid with a bright aroma and sweet and sour taste.

All balsamic vinegar is classified into three categories according to its quality:

  1. Tgadizionale (traditional).
  2. Qualita superioge (highest quality).
  3. Extga veschio (especially seasoned).

The balsamic vinegar found in most stores is three to ten years old, while the more expensive varieties in the second and third categories may last up to half a century. They are so concentrated that only a few drops are added to dishes.

Balsamic vinegar is added to soups, salads, marinades for fish and other seafood, sprinkled with elite cheeses. This product is especially popular among fans of Italian cuisine.

The composition of the substance contains a number of macro- and microelements, pectins, as well as organic acids. All this makes it an excellent antiseptic and an effective cosmetic product.

Please note that it is balsamic vinegar that is most often counterfeited because of its high cost. The cost of a high quality product is at least ten dollars per 50 ml.

Calorie content is 88 kcal per 100 g, it contains 0.49 g of proteins and 17.03 g of carbohydrates, and no fats.

Wine vinegar

Wine vinegar is a product that is formed as a result of the natural souring of wine. It is the brainchild of French culinary experts and, depending on the type of wine used to make it, it comes in white and red.

The red variety is usually made from merlot or cabernet. The fermentation process takes place in oak barrels. In cooking, it is used to prepare sauces, seasonings and marinades.

White wine vinegar is prepared from dry white wines, and not wooden containers are used, but ordinary stainless steel containers. Therefore, the manufacturing process is less expensive. It is also used for making sauces, but it has a less intense taste. Cooks often replace white wine with this product with the addition of sugar in some dishes.

In France, wine vinegar is used to spice up chicken, beef and fish dishes, and as a dressing for vegetable salad with grapes and cheese.

It is noteworthy that this substance has a number of medicinal properties. In particular, it contains the element resveratrol, which is a powerful cardioprotector and has antitumor and anti-inflammatory effects. Also, this product helps to remove harmful cholesterol from the body.

Calorie content is 9 kcal per 100 g. The product contains 1 g of protein, the same amount of fat and the same amount of carbohydrates.

Rice vinegar

Rice vinegar is a specialty of Asian cuisine. It is obtained from grains of rice. The finished product has a delicate, mild taste and a sweetish pleasant aroma.

There are several types of rice vinegar: white, red and black.

The white subspecies is made from glutinous rice. It has the most delicate taste and almost imperceptible aroma. It is commonly used to make sashimi and sushi, marinate fish with it, and is also added as a dressing to salads.

The red variety is prepared by adding special red yeast to rice. It is characterized by a sweet-tart taste with bright fruity notes. It is added to soups and noodles, and it also emphasizes the taste of seafood with it.

Black rice vinegar uses a mixture of a number of ingredients: long grain and glutinous rice, wheat, barley and rice husks. The finished product is dark and thick, has a rich taste and aroma. It is used as a seasoning for meat dishes, as well as stewed vegetables.

Valuable amino acids contained in the product endow it with healing properties. So, for example, in the East they believe that it is able to increase the body's resistance, improve digestion, and sharpen cognitive functions.

The calorie content of rice vinegar is 54 kcal per 100 g. It contains 0.3 g of proteins and 13.2 g of carbohydrates. There are no fats.

Cane Vinegar

Vinegar made from sugar cane syrup is a common product in Indonesian cuisine. It is also popular in the Philippines.

Cane vinegar is obtained by fermenting cane sugar syrup. In the world, this product is not particularly popular. First of all, he has a very specific taste. Moreover, it is very costly. However, gourmets appreciate the cane vinegar, which is made on the island of Martinique. It is a real rarity, unlike the Philippine product, which is less expensive and more common in the region.

Cane vinegar is used when frying meat.

The energy value of the product is 18 kcal per 100 g. There are no fats and proteins in it, and the carbohydrate content is 0.04 g.

Sherry vinegar

This is a type of wine vinegar. It was first produced in Andalusia from white grape varieties. In grape juice a special fungus is added, which starts the fermentation processes. The resulting must is placed in special oak barrels and aged for a long time.

The minimum aging period is six months, and elite varieties are infused for ten years.

Sherry vinegar is a specialty of Mediterranean cuisine. It is used for cooking meat and fish dishes, dressing them with fruit and vegetable salads.

The energy value is 11 kcal per 100 g. There are no proteins and fats in the composition, and carbohydrates are 7.2 g.

Malt vinegar

Malt vinegar is a staple of British cuisine. Outside of Foggy Albion, he is practically unknown. The raw material for its preparation is fermented beer malt wort, as a result of which the product is characterized by a delicate fruity flavor and color that varies from golden to bronze brown.

There are three varieties of malt vinegar:

  1. Dark, intense brown. It has a strong aroma with hints of caramel. It is used to prepare marinades for meat and fish, which eventually acquire a tart, spicy aftertaste.
  2. Light, pale golden hue. This product has a mild aroma with subtle fruity notes. It is most commonly used as a salad dressing. Also, it is this type of vinegar that is part of the legendary British dish fish and chips, which is fried fish with french fries.
  3. Colorless malt vinegar. It is used for conservation. Its indisputable advantage is the fact that it helps to preserve the natural color and aroma of products, but at the same time gives them a sharpness.

Calorie content of 100 g of the product is 54 kcal. There are no fats in it, carbohydrates contain 13.2 g, and proteins - 0.3 g.

Use in folk medicine

antiquities. Even Hippocrates recommended it as an anti-inflammatory and disinfectant.

To date, experts advise using exclusively natural apple cider vinegar for medicinal purposes. What health problems it will help to solve:

  1. In order to "disperse" the metabolism and improve energy metabolism before the main meal, drink a glass of water with two tablespoons of apple cider vinegar. This will help to reduce appetite, and also helps to "burn" fats and carbohydrates.
  2. Use rubbing if the temperature is high. You can also add two tablespoons of apple cider vinegar to a bowl of cold water and soak cotton socks in the mixture. Wring them out, put them on your feet, and pull a pair of woolen socks on top. The fever will subside soon.
  3. This product helps to get rid of foot fungus: wipe the affected areas regularly with a cotton pad soaked in vinegar.
  4. Apple cider vinegar is an excellent remedy for hair beauty. After washing, rinse your hair with cool water and two teaspoons of vinegar - and your strands will be shiny and silky. And if the child “brought” lice from the kindergarten, rub a solution of vinegar and vegetable oil mixed in equal parts into the hair. After that, wrap your head with a towel for an hour, and then rinse your hair with shampoo.
  5. In case of low body tone and chronic fatigue syndrome, drink a glass of water at room temperature every morning, in which you should dissolve a teaspoon of honey and a tablespoon of apple cider vinegar.
  6. After intense physical exertion, when the whole body aches, dilute four tablespoons of apple cider vinegar in two glasses of cold water. Rub this mixture all over the body, intensively massaging the muscles with your hands.
  7. For thrombophlebitis, dissolve one teaspoon of vinegar in a glass of water. Take this drink three times a day before meals. Also wipe the skin in the "problem" areas with undiluted apple cider vinegar.
  8. For sore throat and cough, mix two tablespoons of honey and three tablespoons of vinegar in a glass of warm water. Use this mixture as a gargle. The procedure should be carried out three times a day, and the mixture should be fresh each time.

Vinegar for Weight Loss

Apple cider vinegar has long been known as an effective home remedy for weight loss. One of the most common recipes says that before each meal, a quarter of an hour before sitting down to the table, you should take one or two teaspoons of apple cider vinegar dissolved in a glass of water. The duration of such a course is two months, after which it is necessary to take a break.

Despite the assurances of the authors of many articles on the Internet, stating that vinegar dissolves fat or reduces the calorie content of products, as a result of which kilograms literally “evaporate”, in fact, the mechanism of action of this product is much simpler. The high content of chromium in apple cider vinegar has been found to help fight appetite by balancing blood glucose levels. In turn, the pectins that are present in it give a feeling of satiety and save you from overeating.

Researchers first became interested in the properties of apple cider vinegar and its ability to aid weight loss thanks to American therapist Jarvis DeForest Clinton. He treated his patients with a potion he called "hanigar" (a derivative of the English words "honey" - honey, and "vinegar" - vinegar). He positioned the remedy as a real panacea that improves complexion, improves body tone and helps to lose weight. After that, scientists began research and it turned out that laboratory rodents who used apple cider vinegar were able to “boast” of a decrease in bad cholesterol in the blood and changes in the genes responsible for the accumulation of fat reserves.

If you still decide to fight excess weight with apple cider vinegar, then take on board a few more tips.

Never drink a substance before a meal in a "pure" form. Dilute it in a glass of water. Drink through a straw, and then rinse your mouth thoroughly so that the tooth enamel is not damaged.

If you're afraid of drinking vinegar, start by replacing sour cream and oil in salad dressings.

Vinegar can also be used topically to help you lose weight. For example, start doing anti-cellulite rubbing. To do this, you will need 30 ml of apple cider vinegar dissolved in 200 ml of water. You can also try taking baths by dissolving two cups of apple cider vinegar in a bath filled with water. The water temperature should be 50 degrees, and the duration of the procedure cannot exceed twenty minutes. Please note that this method is contraindicated for hypertensive patients!

Harm and contraindications

The beneficial properties of different types of vinegar were mentioned above. However, if consumed in moderation, even natural vinegar can cause serious damage to health.

A high content of natural acids can worsen the condition of people suffering from diseases of the gastrointestinal tract. So, all types of vinegar should be excluded from the diet for those who have been diagnosed with gastritis and pancreatitis, ulcerative lesions of the stomach and intestines, as well as colitis or cholecystitis.

Also, this product is harmful to tooth enamel and can cause an allergic reaction in case of individual intolerance.

How to choose and store

In order not to disappoint you with the quality of the purchased product, the following rules should be followed when buying and storing vinegar.

Examine the label, check what the product is made of. In the event that you opted for natural vinegar, it should really contain natural raw materials - that is, for example, apples, not malic acid.

Notice the transparency. Table synthetic vinegar should be crystal clear, without impurities. In a natural product, the presence of sediment is the norm, so you should rather be alarmed by its absence.

Store the product in a glass container tightly closed with a lid. Permissible temperature - from 5 to 15 degrees. The bottle should be kept in a place protected from light and out of the reach of children.

Apple cider vinegar has a shelf life of two years. Berry vinegar will "live" up to eight years.

Finally, do not put the product in the refrigerator - this impairs its palatability.

Cooking apple cider vinegar at home

Regrettably, counterfeit goods have been appearing on store shelves lately. Therefore, in order to be “one hundred percent” confident in the quality of natural vinegar, you can cook it at home yourself.

To prepare the most popular type of natural vinegar, apple cider vinegar, you will need two kilograms of apples of any sweet variety, one and a half liters of pure raw water and one hundred and fifty grams of sugar.

Wash and grate the apples on a coarse grater along with the peel and seeds. Put the resulting mass in an enamel pan and fill with water. Add half the sugar, mix thoroughly.

Cover the pan with a towel or napkin. The lid cannot be used - in order for the fermentation process to take place, air access is necessary. Place the pot in a place that is not too stuffy and let it ferment for three weeks. Stir every day using a wooden spoon.

Three weeks later, strain, add the remaining sugar, mix thoroughly until it is completely dissolved. Pour the liquid into jars, cover them with a towel and leave to ferment for one and a half to two months. When the liquid brightens and becomes transparent, the vinegar can be considered ready for use.

Filter it again and bottle it. Seal tightly and store in a cool place.