Vitamin B1 is a sulfur-containing water-soluble compound that is rapidly destroyed in an alkaline environment and during heat treatment.
The chemical formula of the substance is С12Н18ON4S.
Vitamin B1 was first synthesized in 1911 from rice bran by the Polish biochemist Casimir Funk. The crystalline substance obtained as a result of the experiment prevented an outbreak of a serious disease of that time, accompanied by muscle wasting and mental disorder - beriberi. In its pure form, the compound was synthesized only in 1926 by the Dutch biochemist Barend Jansen. And in 1937, its mass production began in industrial conditions. So the first vitamin was discovered in the world.
Given the fact that the orientation of atoms in a molecule of a substance is different, B1 can have several forms. The greatest value for humans is thiamine pyrophosphate. It is he who is part of the tissues of the body, performs physiological, biological functions.
Consider how vitamin B1 is otherwise called:
- thiamine pyrophosphate;
In what follows, we will use the terms “vitamin B1”, “thiamine” as the designation of the active form of the compound.
Consider why this element is needed, where it is, what daily dose of the compound should be ingested, the causes and primary signs of its deficiency, ways to eliminate and prevent beriberi.
- Characterization of thiamine
- The role of vitamin B1
- Signs and causes of vitamin deficiency in the body
- Reasons for increased need for thiamine
- Interaction with other substances in the body
- Vitamin B1 and alcohol
- Effects on hair and facial skin
- Use in medicine
- Sources of vitamin B1
- Recipes fortified with thiamine
Characterization of thiamine
Today, many types of B vitamins have been discovered (B1, B2, B3, B5, B6, B9, B12, para-aminobenzoic acid, biotin, choline, inositol), which are actively involved in the course of vital functions: metabolism, hematopoiesis, protein synthesis, fats, antibodies, hemoglobin, homocysteine metabolism, fetal development, regulation of nervous system activity. Their regular use can slow down the aging process.
The list of B vitamins is headed by thiamine, which is not able to accumulate in the body (see).
As a consequence, in order to replenish the daily requirement and prevent diseases associated with a deficiency of a substance, it is important to ensure its daily intake with food, supplements or medications.
Properties of the compound, why it is useful
Characteristics of thiamine:
- It is a colorless crystalline substance with a pronounced yeast smell. The unit of measure is milligrams.
- Dissolves in water. In fats, alcohol - no.
- Easy to digest. When ingested, more than 60% of thiamine is absorbed into the blood by diffusion in the small intestine. The rest is broken down by the enzyme thiaminase, which is found in raw fish meat, and is also produced by human intestinal bacteria. Up to 5 milligrams of vitamin B1 can be absorbed per day. In some cases, this figure reaches 15, but this is a rare exception to the rule and depends on the characteristics of the body. The state of the gastrointestinal tract has a direct effect on the degree of absorption of thiamine. The presence of diseases from the digestive system (ulcer, colitis, gastritis, pancreatitis) reduces the absorption of the vitamin by 3 or more times.
- The body of a human or an animal daily produces an insufficient amount of vitamin B1 to meet the daily requirement for a substance. As a consequence, it must be regularly supplemented by introducing thiamine-rich foods, vitamins or dietary supplements into the diet.
- Cocarboxylase (thiamine diphosphate) – vitamin B1 coenzyme. The mechanism of its formation is as follows: initially, the thiamine molecule enters the bloodstream, then it goes to the largest digestive gland - the liver, where it combines with phosphoric acid residues and, with the assistance of magnesium, turns into thiamine diphosphate. As part of the coenzyme, the particle is transported to tissues and organs, participating in biochemical processes.
- Resistant to acidic environment (with heat treatment up to 140 degrees). In alkaline or neutral solutions, thiamine is destroyed at 120 degrees and above. As a result, the addition of soda, ammonium carbonate to baking contributes to the rapid release and loss of vitamin B1.
- Muscles contain 60% of thiamine. 40% is in the adrenal glands, brain, liver, heart, kidneys.
- Freezing food by 50%, and sometimes completely, deprives them of a useful compound.
- When adding salt to peas, beans during cooking, the loss of thiamine is 75%. To maximize the preservation of the vitamin, the dish must be flavored after cooking.
- Lack of thiamine leads to beriberi, the development of beriberi disease.
- Vitamin B1 becomes biologically inactive when exposed to sunlight.
- Excess thiamine is non-toxic to a certain extent. With the use of vitamin B1 in large quantities (over 10 milligrams / day), after performing useful functions, the coenzyme molecule breaks down in the liver cells and, like the excess substance, is excreted in the urine.
The role of vitamin B1
Consider what useful functions thiamine performs in the human body.
- Provides the exchange of carbohydrates in the brain, tissues, and liver. The coenzyme of the vitamin fights the so-called "fatigue toxins" - lactic, pyruvic acids. Their excess leads to lack of energy, fatigue, lack of vitality. The negative effect of carbohydrate metabolism products is neutralized by cocarboxylase, turning them into glucose, which nourishes the brain cells. Considering the above, thiamine can be called the vitamin of “pep”, “optimism”, because it improves mood, removes depression, calms nerves, returns appetite.
- Participates in the production of unsaturated fatty acids, the main role of which is to protect the gallbladder and liver from the formation of stones. Lack of vitamin B1 leads to a violation of amino acid metabolism.
- Reduces the inflammatory reaction of the skin, has a positive effect on the condition of the mucous membranes. Due to these properties, thiamine is effectively used in the treatment of neurodermatitis, herpes zoster, wounds, burns, psoriasis, eczema.
- Participates in hematopoiesis, needed for hair growth.
- During cell division, regulates the transfer of genetic material by copying it.
- Strengthens the immune system, improves mental processes, the functioning of the digestive organs, heart, thyroid gland, liver, secretory, motor function of the stomach.
- Has an analgesic effect.
- Reduces the harmful effects of tobacco, alcoholic beverages. Therefore, to eliminate the consequences of a drunken evening or chronic alcoholism, vitamin B1 is an indispensable component of complex treatment and recovery.
- Slows down the aging process.
- Improves the state of the neuromuscular apparatus, the nervous system as a whole, as it prevents the premature breakdown of a vitamin-like substance - choline. It, in turn, reduces the level of bad cholesterol.
- Regulates the action of aminobutyric acid, which is responsible for the proper functioning of the brain, and serotonin, which gives a good mood.
Thiamine is widely used in medicine as a prophylactic, therapeutic agent.
Indications for the use of vitamin B1:
- disorders of the endocrine system (thyrotoxicosis, diabetes mellitus, obesity);
- liver diseases (hepatitis, cirrhosis);
- malfunction of the gastrointestinal tract (ulcer, chronic enteritis, gastritis, pancreatitis, postoperative intervention);
- skin diseases (pyoderma, psoriasis, eczema);
- nervous system dysfunction (peripheral paralysis, depression, neuritis, polyneuritis, Alzheimer's disease );
- heart defects (circulatory failure, myocarditis, endarteritis);
- brain dysfunction;
- malfunction of the kidneys.
Signs and causes of vitamin deficiency in the body
women - 1.3 - 2.2, for men - 1.6 - 2.5.
During pregnancy, for the full development of the fetus, the need for vitamin B1 increases and reaches 2.5 milligrams per day. The lack of a useful compound in the body carries a potential threat of improper laying of organs and the appearance of deviations in the work of the central nervous system of the unborn baby. A woman feels a thiamine deficiency especially painfully in the third trimester, when there is severe pain in the hips, lower back, due to the pressure of the uterus on the nerve plexuses. Therefore, it is important to ensure that a pregnant woman systematically compensates for the lack of a vitamin, consumes foods rich in it daily.
Definition of hypovitaminosis B1
- numbness of hands, feet;
- impaired functioning of nervous tissue;
- irritability, tearfulness, restlessness;
- chilliness at any ambient temperature;
- Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome (observed in patients suffering from alcohol dependence);
- memory loss;
- hand trembling;
- muscle weakness;
- poor coordination;
- diarrhea ;
- liver enlargement;
- decreased appetite ;
- weight loss ;
- gastrointestinal disorders;
- burning in the epigastric region;
- constipation ;
- arterial hypotension;
- unstable, rapid pulse;
- dyspnea on light exertion;
- heart failure;
In the complete absence of thiamine, a severe beriberi disease occurs: harmful acids (lactic, pyruvic) accumulate in the body, carbohydrate metabolism is disturbed, the heart muscle and nervous system are affected, digestive tract. There comes a sharp exhaustion, anorexia.
Due to the fact that the nutrient is not able to accumulate in the body, it is important to constantly replenish its reserves, otherwise beriberi gradually sets in.
Causes of vitamin B1 deficiency
- Regular consumption of coffee. Daily consumption of a caffeinated drink results in the release of large amounts of hydrochloric acid, which destroys 50% of thiamine in the body.
- Reducing the amount of coarse fiber (bran) in vegetable raw materials. Foods depleted in thiamine - polished rice, white bread, extra oatmeal, bleached grains.
- Consumption of refined carbohydrate foods (bakery and confectionery products, rich pastries, pasta). Regular intake of such products increases thiamine deficiency by 3 times.
- Prolonged heat treatment of food. If food is cooked at a temperature of 200 degrees for 45 minutes, the loss of active thiamine reaches 50%.
- Preservation of vegetables and fruits. Sterilization of products for 20 minutes leads to the loss of 25% of the vitamin.
- Profuse sweating.
- The presence of chronic infectious diseases.
- Pregnancy. In the last trimester, a woman's need for a nutrient increases by 2 times. Therefore, for expectant mothers, the daily dosage of thiamine should be 3 milligrams.
- Excessive heating or hypothermia of the body.
Thiamin deficiency for a long time (more than a year) leads to disruption of BJU metabolism and a decrease in the rate of formation of a cellular energy source. This means that the glucose supplied with food is not able to transform into an ATP molecule, as a result, toxic products of incomplete carbohydrate processing (pyruvate, lactic acid) accumulate in the blood. These metabolites, penetrating into the tissues of the brain and spinal cord, disrupt their proper functioning and provoke the development of neurological diseases. Timely identification and elimination of factors contributing to the deficiency of water-soluble vitamin in the body will help prevent the risk of disorders.
Causes of increased thiamine requirements
The daily requirement for vitamin B1 increases in the following cases:
- in production in contact with tetraethyl lead, carbon disulfide, arsenic, mercury, carbon disulfide;
- smoking, frequent drinking;
- antibiotic treatment;
- during intense physical activity (in sports, in particular, in bodybuilding);
- mental stress;
- diabetes mellitus;
- while using contraceptives;
- drinking 2 or more cups of high-caffeinated beverages (strong tea, coffee) daily;
- in children and adolescents in the period of intensive development;
- in diseases of the digestive tract;
- during stress, illness;
- with an increased content of carbohydrates in the daily menu of a person;
- during pregnancy;
- in old age;
- in cold climates;
- in acute, chronic infections.
An excess of thiamine (hypervitaminosis) is uncharacteristic, since the compound does not accumulate in the body, and the excess is quickly broken down by water and excreted in the urine. In the event of an overdose of vitamin B1, the benefits of the compound turn to harm: a person may get an allergic reaction to the substance or experience anaphylactic shock.
Interactions with other substances in the body
Given the fact that some compounds enhance the beneficial properties of thiamine, while others weaken them, it is worth exploring the compatibility of the substance with others drugs. Otherwise, therapy will not bring the desired result.
The relationship of thiamine with nutrients (permissible)
- Magnesium helps vitamin B1 to pass into its active form - coenzyme cocarboxylase. In its absence, the body cannot use thiamine to carry out chemical reactions. Therefore, while taking vitamin B1, the daily diet is enriched with foods that contain magnesium. These include: sesame, cocoa, spinach, dried apricots, soybeans, nuts, shrimp, oat and wheat bran.
- Thiamine reduces the clinical manifestations of vitamin B5 deficiency in the body. Namely, a decrease in libido, palpitations, dizziness, weakness, numbness of the hands.
- Co-administration of thiamine with compounds B2 and C leads to a mutual enhancement of the action of nutrients.
- Daily intake of thiamine reduces the toxic effects of cyclophosphamide and vinblastine.
- The drug levodopa, which is used in the treatment of Parkinson's disease, triples the concentration of thiamine diphosphate in the blood.
- Vitamin C protects B1 from oxidation.
When taking thiamine, it is important to remember that some nutrients reduce the beneficial properties of the compound by up to 10%.
Let's consider them in detail.
- Pyridoxine (B6) slows down the conversion of vitamin B1 to its biologically active form.
- Cobalamin (B12) enhances the allergic reaction to thiamine.
- Vitamin B1, in solutions for intramuscular administration, neutralizes substances with a pH > 7. Therefore, it is advisable to use thiamine and alkaline preparations separately.
- Pyrithiamine (pyrimidine bromide) destroys the B1 molecule.
- The combined use of thiamine and antibiotics (nystatin, levorin, methicillin, benzylpenicillin, oxacillin, tetracycline or levomycetin) leads to the formation of complex compounds and a decrease (or complete absence) of the effectiveness of both substances.
- If diuretics are used while taking vitamin B1, there is an accelerated removal of the nutrient from the body, as a result, hypovitaminosis develops.
- Estrogens (acting on the female genital organs), antacids (reducing stomach acid), sulfonamides (antimicrobials), hormonal contraceptives, alcohol and sulfur-containing drugs reduce the concentration of thiamine in the body.
- Alcohol, tobacco, caffeine, red chicory hinder the absorption of B1 in the intestine.
- Horsetail and fern leaves, raw fish dishes (capelin, crucian carp, sprat, pollock) contain the enzyme thiaminase, which destroys active vitamin B1. Deep freezing or heat treatment of products at a temperature of 150 degrees will help neutralize the harmful enzyme.
- Salt is the “enemy” of vitamin B1. To preserve the nutrient, it must be added at the end of cooking.
- Tea and wine contain tannins, which completely neutralize the compound.
- Nicotinic acid (PP) destroys the vitamin B1 molecule.
It is especially important to take into account the compatibility of thiamine and drugs in case of emergency drug administration, as well as in the complex therapy of chronic diseases.
Contraindications to the use of the compound: premenopausal/climacteric stage in women, Wernicke's encephalopathy.
Vitamin B1 and alcohol
To correct a part of mental and nervous disorders, administration of thiamine is used. Usually the substance is used as part of complex therapy.
Today, the real fever of the 21st century that has broken into the homes of many families is alcoholism. Regular intake of alcoholic beverages in large quantities has a destructive effect on the human body, disrupting the functioning of internal organs and the normal course of important processes. Ethyl-induced intoxication or polyneuritis is the result of vitamin B1 deficiency in the menu of an alcohol-dependent patient.
Purification of the body from the decay products of a strong drink (acetaldehyde) is a complex process that requires a qualified approach.
In medicine, thiamine is used to stop alcohol withdrawal. The dose of vitamin administration (50 - 300 milligrams per day) directly depends on the severity of intoxication and the presence of an organic lesion of the central nervous system. Its use is justified by the fact that when introduced into the body, thiamine transforms pyruvic acid into lactic acid and oxidizes ethyl, providing a pronounced calming, detoxifying effect.
Effects on the hair and skin of the face
Thiamine has a direct effect on the condition of the hair, but the deficiency of the compound in the body does not immediately affect the structure of the curls. In 95% of cases, the first symptoms of nutrient deficiency are fatigue, irritability, nervousness, tachycardia, muscle weakness, and a decrease in blood pressure.
Then, due to the violation of metabolic processes, the hair loses its natural shine, elasticity and strength. A daily intake of 1.5 milligrams of thiamine will help fill the lack of a nutrient. If within six months the physiological need for the vitamin is fully met, the process of gradual fastening of the hair scales will start, and as a result, the problems that have arisen will be eliminated.
Prescribing thiamine for hair:
- strengthening curls;
- increased hair growth;
- slowing down the early appearance of gray hair;
- increase color brightness;
- prevention of bulb prolapse;
- nutrient saturation.
For accelerated restoration of the hair structure, in addition to oral administration, the drug can be additionally used externally, in the form of masks.
Ways of using the vitamin in ampoules
- Rubbing the undiluted agent into the scalp. For this purpose, solution B1 of one ampoule is used, which is used to treat clean hair roots. After applying thiamine, you need to wait 30 minutes, then thoroughly rinse off the vitamin mask with warm water. This procedure is carried out once every 7 days for 2 months.
- Masks based on thiamine. Add 5 drops of liquid vitamin B1 to a portion of a cosmetic product (shampoo, conditioner, balm) and apply to the hair roots, evenly distributing the composition along the length. Wash off the mixture after 20 minutes.
Oral intake of the vitamin in combination with external hair treatment helps to eliminate the nutrient deficiency as soon as possible (in 3 months) and improve the functional state of the skin and curls.
Before using thiamine, it is important to adhere to the following rules:
- Open the ampoule with a special file included in the preparation.
- If the tip of the ampoule is broken, use a cotton pad.
- Do not use a solution opened a few hours ago. For the effectiveness of the procedures, the vitamin must be applied immediately after opening the vial, otherwise its effect is reduced by 50%.
- Detangle and comb hair thoroughly before mask.
- Apply thiamine with smooth movements to the hair roots. At the same time, it is important to avoid sudden intense actions that can damage weakened curls and lead to the bulb falling out.
- Pre-warm the ampoule in your hand - the substance is absorbed better when it is warm.
- Before using a substance, make sure it has not expired.
If pain or burning occurs, the mask should be washed off immediately.
Taking into account the fact that vitamin B1 maintains the elasticity of the skin, it is advisable to use applications based on it for the skin of the face.
Problems that thiamine effectively fights:
- wrinkles and sagging;
- excessive dryness of the skin;
- inflammation, acne;
- profuse pigmentation.
If the smell of a vitamin causes vomiting, the person is most likely allergic to the substance. To detect a negative reaction of the body to the elbow bend, you need to apply a drop of pure B1 and hold for 15 minutes. In the absence of redness or burning at the test site, the nutrient can be applied to the face. Applications based on thiamine help to normalize metabolic processes in the skin, regulate the functioning of the sebaceous glands.
How to use B1 for the face
- Liquid vitamin is used alone or in combination with other ingredients.
- It is important to use the nutrient within 10 minutes of opening the ampoule.
- The frequency of undiluted thiamine applications is twice a week. The course of cosmetic procedures - 15 sessions. Cream enriched with vitamin B1 can be used daily.
- Before starting therapy, the skin of the face is thoroughly cleaned of cosmetics, washed, then the composition is applied for 15 minutes, avoiding areas near the eyes and lips. After the specified time, the mask is washed off with warm water, the face is dried with a towel.
After course procedures, the skin looks toned, fresh and elastic.
Recipe for a rejuvenating mask with thiamine:
- mix in equal proportions (15 milliliters each) warm linden honey, sour cream with 10 grams cottage cheese ;
- add an ampoule of vitamin B1 to the prepared mixture;
- apply the composition to the cleansed skin of the face and neck;
- remove mask residue after 20 minutes;
- Wash your face with warm water.
With regular use of this mask, wrinkles become less noticeable, the complexion evens out and acne decreases.
Use in medicine
Four forms of vitamin B1 are used in medical practice: benfotiamine, phosphothiamine, thiamine, cocarboxylase (thiamine diphosphate). The crystal lattice (formula) of each substance has its own distinctive features.
Given the fact that the mentioned forms of the vitamin are used for different purposes, indications for use are usually divided into two main groups - cocarboxylase and thiamine. Benfotiamine and phosphotiamine belong to the latter type of substance.
Before choosing one or another form of vitamin, it is important to study in advance what the chosen nutrient affects and how to use it correctly.
Cocarboxylase is used in the complex therapy of the following conditions:
- arrhythmias (atrial fibrillation, bigeminia, extrasystole);
- for alcohol intoxication;
- cardiac, renal, respiratory, liver failure;
- hyperglycemic coma in diabetes mellitus;
- muscle paralysis;
- multiple sclerosis;
- Leigh syndrome;
- metabolic or lactic acidosis in diabetes mellitus;
- insufficiency of coronary circulation in ischemic heart disease;
- for weight loss (in complex programs);
- diphtheria, scarlet fever, typhoid;
- multiple sclerosis;
- myocardial infarction;
- emplaxy and preeclampsia in pregnant women.
Cocarboxylase is useful in acute conditions where emergency medical attention is required. The solution is administered intravenously or intramuscularly.
Indications for thiamine (benfotiamine and phosphothiamine)
- diarrhea or atonic constipation;
- nervousness or apathy ;
- neuropathy with low reflexes;
- muscle weakness;
- hoarseness of voice;
- dangling head symptom;
- heart failure;
- megaloblastic anemia;
- ischemic heart disease;
- rheumatic heart disease;
- neuritis and polyneuritis;
- viral hepatitis;
- pyoderma (pustular lesion of the skin);
- psoriasis, eczema, lichen;
Since thiamine is used in 80% of cases for the treatment of chronic diseases, it is acceptable to drink it in tablets, capsules or dragees. For intravenous administration, the drug is diluted with saline, dripping slowly.
Benfotiamine and phosphotiamine preparations are used for oral administration only. In terms of absorption rate and degree of digestibility, they are superior to thiamine. Therefore, if you need long-term ingestion, it is appropriate to choose vitamin B1, which is called phosphothiamin or benfotiamine.
Sources of vitamin B1
The discovery and production of thiamine in its pure form is associated with the study of the shell of rice seeds. In 1889, the Dutch pathologist Christian Eikman noticed that beriberi disease began to progress in chickens that ate peeled boiled rice groats, and when bran from this cereal was introduced into the diet of birds, they were quickly cured. As a result, in the process of detailed study, scientists came to the conclusion that the largest amount of thiamine is contained in the shell of cereals.
Surprisingly, almost all plants, many microorganisms produce thiamine. Even the human body produces it in large doses, but due to the fact that it is produced in the large intestine, the compound is excreted in large quantities in the waste. Unlike humans, in ruminants, the microflora completely absorbs self-created thiamine, as a result, they do not need to receive it additionally from food.
Consider what foods contain vitamin B1. The amount of thiamine is presented for every 100 grams of the ingredient.
- Pine nuts - 33.82 mg.
- Honeysuckle - 3 mg.
- Brown rice - 2.3 mg.
- Sunflower seeds - 1.84 mg.
- Sprouted wheat grains - 1.7 mg.
- Sesame seeds - 1.27 mg.
- Dried coriander leaves, pork - 1.25 mg.
- Pistachios, nutmeg - 1 mg.
- Peas - 0.9 mg.
- Peanuts - 0.74 mg.
- Pollack roe - 0.67 mg.
- Yeast, Brazil nuts - 0.6 mg.
- Oatmeal, rice, lentils, beans, soybeans, cashew nuts, rosemary, thyme - 0.5 mg each.
- Rye - 0.44 mg.
- Millet groats, fennel seeds - 0.42 mg.
- Watermelon, melon - 0.4 mg.
- Corn, walnuts, cumin, offal of birds, animals (stomach, heart, brain, liver, lungs, kidneys) - 0.39 mg each.
- Liver, buckwheat, barley groats, anise - 0.33 mg each.
- Hazelnuts, canned green peas - 0.3 mg.
- Pasta - 0.25 mg.
- Sorrel - 0.2 mg.
- Bread - 0.18 mg.
- Chicken egg - 0.12 mg.
- Cauliflower, Brussels sprouts, asparagus, potatoes - 0.10 mg.
- Oranges - 0.09 mg.
Determining what else vitamin B1 is present in, the following sources of thiamine can be distinguished (content up to 0.1 milligrams / 100 grams of product): beets, eggplant, spinach, onions, pumpkin, carrots, field mustard, prunes, rose hips, chamomile, fennel, hops, blueberries, currants, sea buckthorn, milk, raisins, pomelo, algae (spirulina, kelp), plums, strawberries, strawberries, nettles, parsley, mint, sage, beef, fish.
Fruits and dairy products are poor in this compound.
The first enemy of thiamine is the heat treatment of raw materials. Therefore, greens, vegetables are preferably eaten fresh.
In the process of cooking, the loss of vitamin B1 is:
- boiling cereals, vegetables - 20%;
- boiling beef, washing rice - 30%;
- roasting vegetables - 40%;
- beef stewing - 75%;
- rice cooking - 100%.
Recipes for meals fortified with thiamine
containing a large amount of a water-soluble substance.
Let's look at recipes that can be easily whipped up at home. At the same time, they will not only be tasty and nutritious, but will also help fill the lack of thiamine in the body.
- 10% fat cream – 100 ml;
- honeysuckle - 200g;
- honey - 15 ml;
- ice (snow) - 50 g;
- mint (melissa, pepper).
- Rinse honeysuckle berries, chop in a blender.
- Add honey, mint, cream, ice to the resulting mixture. Whisk all ingredients.
- Pour a fortified drink into a glass.
- When serving, garnish the smoothie with mint and a slice of lemon.
Warm salad with pine nuts
- olive oil - 60 ml;
- lemon peel - 5 g;
- lemon juice - 15 ml;
- cherry tomatoes - 250 g;
- zucchini - 1 piece;
- sunflower seeds - 100 g;
- pine nuts - 100 g;
- soft feta cheese - 200 g;
- parsley - bunch;
- Line a baking sheet with oiled paper.
- Zucchini cut into circles, salt, pepper, put in a baking dish. The thickness of the vegetable should not exceed 5 mm.
- Place the baking sheet with the zucchini in the preheated oven for 15 minutes, keeping the temperature in the oven at 180 degrees.
- Cut mint, parsley, cheese, tomatoes.
- Prepare dressing. To do this, combine and beat the following products: salt, pepper, olive oil, zest, lemon juice.
- Remove the toasted zucchini from the oven. Put them in a salad bowl, add chopped cherry tomatoes, herbs, cheese, sunflower seeds, pour dressing, mix.
- Serve the dish in portions. To do this, put lettuce leaves on a plate, pour warm salad on them, sprinkle with pine nuts on top.
Vegetarian Mediterranean salad
- cauliflower - 500 g;
- Bulgarian pepper - 1 piece;
- brown rice - 200 g;
- pine nuts - 50 g;
- almonds - 50 g;
- onion - 1 piece;
- dried cranberries - 100 g;
- sesame seeds - 30 g;
- lemon juice - 40 ml;
- olive oil - 50 ml;
1. Wash rice, boil (do not cool).
2. Onion, sweet pepper cut into strips.
3. Divide the cabbage into inflorescences, boil, put in a colander.
4. Rinse cranberries, pour boiling water for 2 minutes, dry on a paper towel.
5. Combine all salad ingredients, salt, pepper, season with olive oil and lemon juice.
6. Serve the dish so that the rice in the salad is warm.
Vitamin B1 is an indispensable water-soluble compound that affects vital processes in the body and a person's well-being, determines the quality of his life in general.
Identification of symptoms of hypovitaminosis in the early stages can prevent the development of diseases of the nervous system, beriberi. Prevention of B1 deficiency comes down to a decrease in the daily menu of the amount of premium flour, refined fats, as well as the consumption of foods rich in thiamine. The complete absence of a vitamin in the body is treated by replenishing the lack of a compound by intramuscular injections, taking oral medications. As a rule, with mild, moderate forms, the prognosis is favorable.