Vitamin B12

Vitamin B12 is the general name for a group of substances that include: 5-deoxyadenosylcobalamin, methylcobalamin, cyanocobalamin, hydroxycobalamin.

Compared to other nutrients, the chemical structure of this compound is the most complex, it is based on the corrin ring.

Vitamin B12 (in Latin Cyanocobalamin) is the only cobalt-containing biologically active substance that can accumulate in the body and accumulate in the spleen, lungs, liver, and kidneys of a person.

General information

Cobalamin is a dark red odorless crystalline powder, which dissolves well in water, stable in the light, practically does not break down under the influence of high temperatures (withstands up to 300 degrees). The characteristic color of the element is given by the cobalt atom located in the molecules of the compound. Thanks to him, the compound acquired the name “red vitamin” among the people.

Cyanocobalamin is often called an anti-anemic factor in view of the fact that it regulates hematopoiesis, creating favorable conditions for the normal development of erythrocytes of the correct form, capable of fully performing their functions.

In addition, vitamin B12 is involved in the synthesis of fatty acids, DNA, burns fat, is needed for energy production and the normal functioning of the nervous system and brain. The biosynthesis of the main structure of the compound is carried out only by bacteria, while the conversion of cobalamin is possible directly in the human body.

Vitamin B12 in its general semi-synthetic form does not occur naturally. The compound is derived from bacterial hydroxocobalamin. The resulting nutrient is used as a food additive, as well as in pharmaceutical preparations. In the human body, cyanocobalamin is converted into methylcobalamin, adenosylcobalamin and, in small quantities, into cyanide.

Consider the role of the vitamin, what are its benefits, signs of deficiency and excess of the compound, the daily norm of the substance, and also in what products it is contained.

Discovery historyvitamin B12

Lack of B12 leads to the development of anemia, which in the middle of the 19th century sounded like a sentence and could not be treated. Ways to get rid of pathology were discovered by chance, during an experiment on dogs, produced by George Whipple.

An American doctor induced anemia (pernicious anemia) in test subjects by causing them to bleed, then fed the animals a variety of foods to discover which foods would speed up the recovery process. During the experiment, the scientist found that eating liver in large quantities quickly cures the disease caused by blood loss. Based on the data obtained, Whipple suggested that daily intake of this product leads to the elimination of anemia.


Further clinical studies by physicians William Murphy and George Richards Minot focused on isolating the desired substance from the liver.

In tests, pathophysiologists found that it was iron. In addition, they found that completely different liver substances are capable of treating anemia in dogs and humans, which do not have any effect on each other. As a result, Mino and Murphy in 1926 discovered a specific factor found in liver juice. This was the first impetus in the study of the problem.

Over the next 2 years, patients with anemia were supposed to drink juice daily and eat liver in large quantities (up to 3 kilograms). However, prolonged use of the raw product caused disgust in patients and the problem of finding an alternative solution became more acute every day.

In 1928, chemist Edwin Cohn first developed a liver extract that was 100 times more concentrated than animal by-product. The resulting extract was the first active tool in the fight against a merciless disease.

In 1934, two Harvard physicians, William Parry Murphy and George Maicot, received the Nobel Prize for the discovery of the medicinal properties of a beneficial substance. This event eventually led to the birth of soluble vitamin B12. 14 years later, scientists Lester Smith, Carl Folkers, Edward Rickes, for the first time brought pure cyanocobalamin in crystalline form. And in 1955, the chemist Dorothy Crowfoot-Hodgkin determined the spatial configuration, the chemical structure of the molecule, for which she was awarded the Nobel Prize.

In the late 1950s, scientists developed a method for obtaining the vitamin in large quantities from bacterial cultures. Thanks to this, the deadly disease of that time became amenable to treatment.

Physiological role

Cobalamin is an octahedral compound of cobalt with a corinoid spectrum. The nucleotide chain endsdimethylbenzomidazole.

Vitamin B12 is an organo-metallic compound, which, due to the content of cobalt (4.5%), is able to form complexes with metal ions.

What is the formula for cyanocobalamin?


Functions of vitamin B12 in the body

Partial list of functions of cyanocobalamin:

  1. Synthesis of hemoglobin and blood cells. The lack of cyanocobalamin leads to a slowdown in the production of new red blood cells, a decrease in their total number.
  2. Ensuring the normal functioning of the brain - improves memory, increases anti-stress protection. Influence on the nervous system - prevention of senile dementia, depression, sclerosis.
  3. Production of leukocytes designed to destroy foreign particles. Cyanocobalamin strengthens the immune system, supporting the body's defenses. In the course of the studies, it was found that in patients with a low level of B12, in whose blood the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome was detected, HIV progresses 2 times faster than in patients with a sufficient amount of the substance in tissues and organs.
  4. Reproductive support. Vitamin plays an important role in the body of men: it affects the number of germ cells in the seminal fluid. In a healthy body, with a daily intake of a daily dose of cobalamin, the number of spermatozoa in plasma is maximum.
  5. Maintenance of blood pressure, which is especially important in hypotension. It does not cause hypertension.
  6. Participation in the breakdown of proteins. Anabolic processes occur exclusively in the presence of cyanocobalamin. Therefore, this compound is important for athletes, as it contributes to the rapid set of muscle mass.
  7. Participation in the production of melatonin and normalization of sleep. It has been proven that vitamin B12 effectively fights insomnia, helps the body adapt to sudden changes in sleep and wakefulness.
  8. Respiratory support. In the event of an oxygen deficiency in the blood, cyanocobalamin acts as an amplifier, inducing cells to intensively consume chalcogen (acute, chronic hypoxia). As a result, with a long breath holding, it is B12 that increases the period during which a person is able to do without inhalation. In addition, in a rarefied atmosphere, a useful connection maintains the performance of all systems.
  9. Increased activity of the oxidative enzyme succinate dehydrogenase and prevention of fatty infiltration of the liver, heart, spleen, kidneys due to the lipotropic function of vitamin B12.
  10. Removal of a dangerous factor that increases the risk of developing heart disease - homocysteine. excess amino acids inblood increases the likelihood of myocardial infarction, stroke by 3 or more times.
  11. Decreased cholesterol in the blood.
  12. Reduction of pain associated with nerve fiber damage in diabetic neuropathy.
  13. Participation in metabolic reactions with subsequent conversion of substances into the active form of vitamin A.
  14. Synthesis of ribonucleic, deoxyribonucleic acids. They make up the cell nuclei containing all hereditary information.
  15. The formation of myelin sheath on nerve fibers, which, with the participation of cobalamin, turns into a structural component of myelin - succinic acid. With a lack of vitamin B12 in the body, the substance is not produced in the required amount, which leads to demyelination of the nerve fiber. Myelin deficiency impairs sensitivity and transmission of impulses from muscles to the brain and vice versa. As a result, a person experiences numbness of the limbs, paresthesia (running goosebumps), indicating degeneration of the nerve fiber.
  16. Participation (together with vitamins C, B5, B9) in the exchange of BJU, in isomerization reactions, the combination of deoxyribosides, labile methyl groups.

These physiological processes occur directly at the molecular level, where cyanocobalamin activates biochemical transformations in the human body. The compound is used as a cofactor for the enzyme methionine synthetase, which is necessary for the synthesis of DNA, pyrimidines, purines.

As you can see, vitamin B12 performs many functions, ensuring the normal functioning of internal organs and systems. Insufficiency of the compound in adults and children can lead to serious disorders and health problems - damage to the nervous system, the development of megaloblastic anemia, atrophic gastritis, mental disorders, depression, stroke.

Vitamin B12 and megaloblastic anemia

Active forms of the compound ensure the correct production of enzymes from reductase, which convert B9 to tetrahydrofolate. The resulting pentanedioic acid accelerates the process of cell division. Due to this, systematic regeneration of organs and tissues occurs.

Tetrahydrofolic acid contributes to the maintenance of cells in a healthy young state. The activation of division is especially important for rapidly renewing tissues. These include mucous membranes, epidermis, blood cells.

Vitamin B12 is partly responsible for the constant maintenance of these tissues in a normal state.

Due to the fact that the compound can stimulate cell division, it is effective in preventing the development of megaloblastic anemia.

Cobalamin deficiency results inRBC progenitor cells increase in size uncontrollably but do not divide. As a result, megaloblasts are formed in the blood, the so-called giant blood cells, which contain little hemoglobin. Due to their impressive size, they lose their ability to penetrate into vessels of small diameter. Blood flow is disturbed, gas exchange suffers. All this leads to megaloblastic anemia.

Often the consequences of the disease are oxygen starvation of the body (hypoxia), damage to the nervous system, indigestion, numbness of the extremities. The patient feels discomfort in all parts of the body, experiences lethargy, dizziness, burning on the tongue, and a sharp decrease in appetite.

How to determine the presence of the disease

At the first stage of megaloblastic anemia, it can be detected only after a blood test, at the second, characteristic morphological, functional pathologies in organs and tissues appear.

Cyanocobalamin ensures timely cell division and, as a result, the appearance of normal-sized red blood cells in large numbers with a high concentration of hemoglobin.

Thus, smoking cessation and abuse of ethyl drinks, proper nutrition, systematic intake of vitamins B9 and B12 are fundamental preventive measures that prevent the occurrence of megaloblastic anemia.

Absorption and excretion

Normally, the process of absorption of cyanocobalamin into the blood occurs directly in the small intestine. Vitamin B12 is absorbed exclusively in the presence of the internal factor Castle (protein compound), which is produced by the cells of the stomach. In the absence of this substance, incoming synthetic (in tablet form) or natural (with food) cobalamin cannot be absorbed into the bloodstream, which leads to a nutrient deficiency in the body.

Considering that the Castle factor is produced by cells of the stomach, absorption of vitamin B12 can be impaired in gastric diseases. However, in the case of large doses of cyanocobalamin in the body (more than 4 micrograms per day), the beneficial compound can be absorbed without the participation of the internal factor.

Consider the sequence of vitamin B12 absorption:

  1. Formation of the “cobalamin + Castle factor” bond.
  2. Entry of the formed combination into the small intestine with subsequent passage of the complex into the portal vein of the liver.
  3. Decomposition of the bond, release of cyanocobalamin.
  4. Transport of free vitamin B12 to tissues, internal organs.

In the human body, cobalamin is converted into active forms (deoxyadenosylcobalamin, methylcobalamin), in whichexhibits its physiological properties. After B12 has performed all the functions, the compound is again transferred to the blood, from where it is transported to the kidneys and liver for further excretion with urine and feces.

Interestingly, cyanocobalamin, unlike other B vitamins, can accumulate in the body. Most of all, the substance is deposited in the liver, creating a depot that can satisfy the needs for the nutrient up to 3-4 years.

Vitamin B12 is poorly absorbed through the stomach. In order for a substance to be useful, it must react with calcium during absorption.

Pyridoxine (B6) is recommended to improve cobalamin absorption. In a healthy body, a properly functioning thyroid gland ensures the full absorption of B12.

Signs of cyanocobalamin deficiency

Typical symptoms and diseases that occur when there is a deficiency of B12 in the body:

  • ) increased fatigue;
  • paresthesia (skin tingling, crawling sensation);
  • megaloblastic anemia;
  • funicular myelosis;
  • irritability;
  • dry, tingling, burning tongue;
  • paralysis with dysfunction of the pelvic organs;
  • decreased or no appetite;
  • diarrhea ;
  • yellowing of the skin;
  • patchy hair loss;
  • bad body odor;
  • erosions on the mucous membrane of various organs (bronchi, intestines, vagina, mouth, throat, nose);
  • achilia (gastric pH is zero);
  • heaviness when walking;
  • dizziness;
  • glossitis (inflammation of the tongue);
  • dyspnea on exertion;
  • ulceration of the corners of the mouth;
  • erratic heart rate;
  • burning, hypersensitivity, redness, itchy eyes;
  • cataract formation;
  • seborrheic dermatitis on the face;
  • depression;
  • inflammation of the skin in women, men in the genital area;
  • personality degradation.

Symptoms of cyanocobalamin deficiency can occur in a variety of combinations and vary in severity. The more severe the deficiency of vitamin B12, the brighter and stronger the complaints. For example, with a deficiency of 15% of a nutrient in the body, the signs of deficiency are moderate: a person will follow his usual lifestyle, maintain efficiency, while experiencing moderate malaise. In the event of a shortage of 30% cobalamin, its general condition will worsen significantly, the symptoms will become more severe.pronounced character.

Patients often experience:

  • bowel dysfunction (bloating, diarrhea, constipation );
  • atrophy of the gastric mucosa;
  • enlarged liver, spleen;
  • ataxia;
  • appearance of pathological reflexes;
  • disruption of the sphincter of the rectum, bladder;
  • increased body temperature;
  • a sharp decrease in the number of red blood cells, white blood cells, platelets.

Factors that reduce the level of vitamin in the body

Causes of vitamin compound deficiency:

  1. Lack or cessation of the production of the acceptor protein and Castle factor.
  2. Lack of intake (poor diet) of vitamin B12 with food.
  3. Diseases of the gastrointestinal tract (diffuse gastritis, gastric resection, the presence of Helicobacter pylori bacteria).
  4. Violation of the absorption of nutrients in the small intestine. For example, during the development of sprue.
  5. Systematic use of drugs that reduce the acidity of the stomach.
  6. Wide ribbon. According to Nyberg and Ungley, the worm is able to completely absorb cobalamin from the body, causing vitamin deficiency, botryocephalic pernicious anemia.
  7. Alcoholism.
  8. Surgical intervention (partial resection) on the small intestine.
  9. Taking antibiotics in pure form or with food (through meat and poultry from livestock complexes).
  10. Smoking. When it enters the oral cavity, cigarette smoke disrupts the synthesis of B12 in the human body.
  11. Yeast bread. Today there is a theory that thermophilic non-taxonomic unicellular fungi do not die during baking. As a result, after entering the body , yeast increases the number of colonies, disrupting the intestinal microflora, which leads to the creation of unfavorable conditions for the development of beneficial bacteria and the flourishing of putrefactive flora.
  12. Food preservatives.
  13. Stress. As a result of emotional shock, the human body produces adrenaline, the excess of which enters the intestines, having a detrimental effect on cyanocobalamin. Physical exercises neutralize the harmful effects of stress, improve well-being, utilize the hormone.
  14. Abundance garlic, onion, radish, radish in the diet. These products destroy the intestinal microflora, which is difficult to restore in the future. As a result, the process of absorption of vitamin B12 slows down, which leads to deficiency of the compound.
  15. Prolonged heat treatment, sterilization of food rich in cobalamin.
  16. Lack of sunlight.

Vitamin B12 deficiency provokes the development of Addison-Birmer disease (malignant anemia), which is characterized by impaired functioning of the digestive organs, hematopoiesis, and the nervous system. Clinical manifestations of the disease: decreased performance, weakness, puffiness of the face, fatigue, palpitations, irritability, shortness of breath, paresthesia of the extremities, memory impairment.

Cobalamin excess

Vitamin B12 excess is of two types: acute and chronic. In the first case, an overdose occurs as a result of a one-time poisoning with a large dose of a substance, in the second case, with regular, long-term intake of the compound in quantities much higher than (2 or more times) the daily requirement of the body. Sometimes hypervitaminosis develops with increased sensitivity to the active substance of the drug.

Elevated serum levels of cyanocobalamin (709 – 950 pmol per liter) cause the following side effects and conditions:

  • allergy;
  • excitability;
  • acceleration of blood clotting.

If the level of vitamin B12 is extremely elevated, the production of haptocorrin (an inactive transporter) in the body increases, which contributes to the development of the following serious conditions that require immediate hospitalization: polycythemia, promyelocytic, myelogenous leukemia, hypereosinophilic syndrome.

In addition, as a result of research, employees of the University of California came to the conclusion that excess cobalamin leads to the development of acne. Scientists have found that the compound has an effect on the Propionibacterium acnes bacteria that lives on the skin. According to the head of the ongoing experiments, Huiying Li, an increase in the concentration of B12 increases the activity of the genes of microorganisms responsible for the synthesis of the vitamin. So, from a group of volunteers, one participant developed acne.

How to lower the level of vitamin B12 in the body?

To reduce the amount of cobalamin, it is necessary to exclude foods with a high content of cobalamin from the diet (offal, in particular liver, as well as meat, fish).

Indications for use

Given the fact that the group of cobalt-containing biologically active substances (vitamins B12) includes cyanocobalamin, hydroxycobalamin and 2 coenzyme forms - methylcobalamin and cobamamide, these elements have similar pharmacological properties. Therefore, they are used to treat the same functional disorders.

However, due to the nature of each nutrient's metabolism, duration of action, and rate of developmenttherapeutic effect in the indications for the use of substances, there are some differences. Common diagnoses for which cobalt-containing drugs are prescribed:

  • radiation sickness;
  • chronic anemia (iron deficiency, Addison-Birmer, toxic, aplastic, alimentary, posthemorrhagic);
  • cirrhosis of the liver;
  • amyotrophic lateral sclerosis;
  • diabetic neuropathy;
  • acute and chronic hepatitis;
  • myelosis;
  • cerebral palsy;
  • skin lesions (psoriasis, neurodermatitis, dermatitis herpes, photodermatosis);
  • polyneuritis;
  • bone injury;
  • osteochondrosis;
  • causalgia.

Vitamin contraindications: thromboembolism, erythrocytosis, hypersensitivity. The nutrient is prescribed with caution to people suffering from angina pectoris and various neoplasms, which are accompanied by cobalamin deficiency and megaloblastic anemia.

Cobalamide and cyanocobalamin are used in the following cases:

  • for hair loss;
  • to reduce inflammatory and wound processes in peripheral nerves (phantom pain, radiculoneuritis);
  • with stomatitis ;
  • to accelerate bone healing;
  • in pathologies of the digestive organs associated with impaired nutrient absorption (Crohn's disease, sprue, resection of the stomach or small intestine, celiac disease);
  • if B12 deficiency anemia is present;
  • under conditions of chronic stress;
  • while following a vegetarian, raw food, or strict weight loss diet;
  • as part of rehabilitation measures after protracted infectious diseases;
  • with multiple sclerosis, encephalomyelitis.

Vitamin B12 should not be administered with drugs that increase blood clotting.

Indications for the use of hydroxocobalamin

Conditions for which the drug is prescribed:

  • dystrophy or deficiency body weight in newborns;
  • rehabilitation after prolonged infectious diseases;
  • cyanide poisoning (accidental or intentional);
  • trigeminal neuralgia;
  • migraine;
  • alcoholic psychosis (“delirium tremens”);
  • hereditary atrophy of the optic nerves (Leber's disease);
  • atopic dermatitis (for facial skin).

Please note that these readings are for guidance only and are not instructions for use. With absenceof the recommended substance, it is acceptable to use any available type of nutrient.

Daily dosage

The rate of consumption of cyanocobalamin depends on age, sex, rhythm of life, health status.

For children from birth to six months, the recommended dose of vitamin B12 is 0.5 micrograms per day, from 7 to 12 months - 0.5, from 1 year to 3 years - 0.9, from 4 up to 8 years - 1.2. The daily requirement for adolescents from 9 to 13 years old is 1.8 micrograms, from 14 years old and for adults - 2.4, for pregnant women - 2.6, for nursing mothers - 2.8.

The given norms provide full satisfaction of the body's needs for a useful compound. However, these indicators are valid only for healthy people living a measured, calm life.

Strong emotional stress, alcohol abuse, heavy physical activity, stress, smoking reduce the level of cobalamin in the human body.

Therefore, in the presence of these risk factors, vitamin B12 intake should be increased by 10-25%.

The minimum safe level of intake of cyanocobalamin in dietary nutrition is 1 microgram per day, the maximum, without compromising health, reaches 9 units per day.

According to the standards adopted in the CIS countries, the content of B12 in the blood is normal:

  • in newborns up to a year - 118 - 959 pmol liter;
  • Children 1 year of age and adults up to 60 years of age - 148 - 616 picomoles per liter;
  • older people over 60 years old - 81 - 568 pmol per liter.

The level of cobalamin in the human body is determined by the colorimetric method. To do this, you need to donate blood from a vein, as for a biochemical analysis. To get a reliable result of the study, the day before, you should stop taking medication (previously discussed with the doctor), alcohol, fatty, fried foods.

Remember, if you take the following drugs 2-3 days before donating blood, the test result will be underestimated:

  • aminoglycoside antibiotics (levomycetin);
  • anticonvulsants (phenytoin, phenobarbital);
  • diuretics;
  • cimetidine;
  • ranitidine;
  • triamterene;
  • colchicine;
  • methotrexate;
  • metformin;
  • cholestyramine;
  • aminosalicylic acid;
  • oral contraceptives;
  • neomycin.

Sources of vitamin B12

Cyanocobalamin is the only compound with vitamin activity not synthesized by animals or plants. The substance is produced exclusivelymicroorganisms and must be ingested with food. A small amount of cobalamin is synthesized by its own microflora in the large intestine. However, it is not absorbed due to the impossibility of raising the compound to the overlying sections of the intestine, where it enters the bloodstream.

The largest amount of vitamin B12 is found in offal (liver, kidney, heart of cattle). Therefore, these products should be regularly present in the diet of pregnant, lactating women.

A considerable amount of a useful compound is found in seafood and fish.

What vegetables and fruits contain cobalamin

The vitamin is present in plant products in small amounts (up to 0.1 micrograms per 100 grams of product).

Which fruits contain cobalamin?

In small doses (up to 0.05 micrograms per 100 grams), the substance is found in apricots, plums, peaches.

Regular consumption of foods rich in cyanocobalamin contributes to a gradual increase in its level in the body.

What foods contain folic acid
Product name The content of cobalamin in 100 g of the product, micrograms
Lamb liver 90
Beef liver 60
Pork liver 30
Bovine heart 25
Octopus 20
Cattle kidneys 20
Cold Pacific herring 18.7
Chicken liver 16.58
Mussels 12
Mackerel 12
Sardine 11
Beef heart 10
Trout 7.79
Salmon 7
Beef tongue 4.7
Powdered milk 4.5
Rabbit meat 4.3
Pink salmon 4.15
Keta 4.1
Brains (pork, beef) 3.7
Smelt 3.5
Lungs (pork, beef) 3.3
Acne 3
Beef 2.6
Hake 2.4
Sea bass 2.4
Pork 2
Lamb 2
Beluga 2
Egg yolk 1.8
Shrimp 1.7
Cod 1.6
Turkey 1.6
Halibut 1.55
Carp 1.5
Cheese (hard varieties) 1.4
Cheese 1.0
Curd 1.0
Crab 1, 0
Roquefort cheese 0.62
Chicken (broiler chickens) 0.55
Yeast extract 0.5
Cream 0.45
Milk 0.4
Yogurt 0.4
Kefir 0.4
Sour cream 0.36
Processed cheese 0.25
Butter 0, 07

Unlike most B vitamins, high levels of cyanocobal the mine is preserved with any method of cooking. For example, when roasting veal at a temperature of 200 degrees for 45 minutes, the loss of the compound is only 25%, when boiling milk (up to 5 minutes) - 30%.

Despite the fact that the substance is quite stable to high temperatures, the duration of the heat treatment of products should be kept to a minimum. For example, boiling milk for 20 minutes destroys all the vitamins in it, and also reduces the nutritional value.

In the case of preparing milk porridge, to maximize the preservation of cyanocobalamin, you must first boil the cereal in a small amount of water, then add milk to it, boil it and turn it off. Let it brew. If you initially cook porridge in milkmore than 15 minutes, the loss of vitamin B12 will reach 80-100%.

In the process of cooking meat, it is recommended to use sugar. Adding sweetness not only speeds up the cooking process of the steak by 2 times, but also helps to maximize the preservation of nutrients.

For vegetarians, raw foodists who consume some animal products (eggs, fish, dairy products) and adhere to a balanced diet, most often the issue of cyanocobalamin deficiency in the body is of little relevance.

Strict vegan dieters are at high risk of developing compound deficiency. To prevent hypovitaminosis, they are recommended to introduce into the diet: breakfast cereals, soy milk, nutritional yeast, meat substitutes, muesli, edible seaweed, fortified nutritional supplements.

Vitamin B12 in medicine

medicine to eliminate a number of diseases and functional disorders in humans.

Therapeutic use of vitamin B12

Scope of use of cobalamin:

  1. Diseases of the digestive system. Numerous studies confirm (O. L. Gordon, V. S. Lavrova, G. F. Markov) that after resection of the stomach, in 90% of cases, endogenous B12-vitamin deficiency develops. Therefore, to prevent hyperchromic anemia in patients undergoing gastrectomy, it is advisable to use the nutrient for 7-10 days at a dosage of 100-200 micrograms per day. Along with this, cobalamin is used as part of the complex therapy of gastric and duodenal ulcers. In addition to reducing pain in the epigastric region and normalizing the motor-evacuation function of the organ, patients experience an improvement in well-being, weight gain (1-3 kilograms), a feeling of cheerfulness and an increase in emotional status.
  2. Pathologies of the hematopoietic organs. Since cobalamin is absorbed in the small intestine, if the absorption of the compound is impaired, beriberi develops in the body. This process most often occurs due to poor nutrition, micronutrient deficiencies, helminthic invasions, or after surgery. If the nutrient is not absorbed in the body for a long time, the production of normal red blood cells slows down, since their synthesis only reaches the megalocyte phase. Due to their large diameter (11 micrometers), immature blood cells cannot bind and carry oxygen, as a result, a serious disease develops in 80% of cases - Addison-Birmer pathology. Intramuscular dailyan injection of 30-100 micrograms of cobalamin causes an increase in the concentration of the vitamin in the blood, as a result of which megaloblastic hematopoiesis (with anemia) turns into normoblastic. After achieving clinical remission, they switch to maintenance doses of the nutrient (100 micrograms 1-2 times a month). Dr. S. M. Ryss recommends that at the end of vitamin therapy for six months, administer 250 micrograms of the substance once every 2 weeks, and then once a month. It is important to understand that taking small portions of the nutrient (30 micrograms 1-2 times a month) does not guarantee protection against B12 deficiency. The treatment regimen and the daily dosage of cobalamin are selected individually, depending on the patient's condition, the severity of the pathology, the level of anemia, and the pharmacological effectiveness of the therapy used. Along with this, cobalamin is used in the clinic for the treatment of atherosclerosis of the coronary vessels with coronary insufficiency. Physicians, L. P. Motovilova, L. G. Fomina, V. I. Bobkova, A. G. Artamonova, P. E. it contains concentrations of phospholipids, as a result of which the risk of thrombosis is halved.
  3. In surgical practice. In operational medicine, cobalamin is used as a means of stimulating the regeneration of the peripheral nerve, helping the formation of callus, reducing the time of fusion of fragments, wound healing. Electrophysiological studies (D. K. Yazykov) indicate that vitamin B12 as part of the complex therapy for the treatment of trauma potentiates the process of osteogenesis and reduces the rehabilitation period of the patient by 15-20%.
  4. Neurological diseases. Doctors note that a decrease in the concentration of cyanocobalamin in the blood (by 17-30%) leads to an increase in the number of homocysteine ​​molecules (an intermediate product of methionine metabolism) that affect the walls of blood vessels. This phenomenon underlies the development of neurological pathologies. Numerous studies indicate a positive treatment of depressive conditions with the introduction of small doses of the nutrient (3-10 micrograms per day). In severe forms of pathology, the daily dose of cobalamin is increased to 100-500 micrograms. In this case, vitamin B12 reduces the level of homocysteine ​​in the blood, resulting in the activation of enzymes and the normalization of amino acid metabolism. Exceeding the indicated dosages is permissible only on the prescription of the attending physician. Trigeminal neuralgia is a direct indication for taking a nutrient in large quantities (1000 micrograms per day). In this case, according to doctors S. A. Torosyan, N. S. Lobachev, F. A. Poemna, the course of treatment of the disease is 2 weeks, which implies the introduction of cobalamin 1injections per day.
  5. In pediatrics. Vitamin B12 is effective in the complex therapy of bronchopulmonary diseases in children with anemia and chronic eating disorders. This is evidenced by the results of experiments conducted by doctors T. A. Vasilchenko and A. S. Vasilenko. Doctors found that in patients treated with cobalamin in the acute phase of the disease, the level of hemoglobin in the blood increased more actively than in the control group. Along with this, doctors, R. I. Enikeeva and R. M. Mamish, revealed the beneficial effect of the vitamin on the course of pulmonary pathology in children with anemia. With the introduction of 20-30 micrograms of the nutrient (intramuscularly), for 45 days, weight gain and faster recovery were observed in babies. For the treatment of anemia, vitamin B12 should be combined with iron supplements.
  6. Ophthalmic diseases. Cobalamin (in drops) is used to improve the condition of the optic nerve, accelerate the scarring of the cornea of ​​\u200b\u200bthe eye and prevent the onset of blindness. The most popular brands are “Sante PC” and “Chauvin”. Means it is advisable to drip into the eyes with fatigue, conjunctivitis, itching, redness and blurred vision.
  7. In cosmetology. Vitamin B12, along with oral and parenteral administration, is used externally, as part of anti-aging face masks. In addition, cobalamin is used for the iontophoresis procedure (galvanic current treatment). Vitamin B12 is an indispensable nutrient for hair, it is he who makes them elastic, strong and shiny. With a deficiency of cobalamin, the blood supply to the scalp worsens, as a result of which the growth of curls slows down. To improve the structure of the hair, the vitamin is administered orally in the form of tablets or injections. Along with this, the nutrient can be obtained from cobalt-containing foods.

Without vitamin B12, a good muscle growth rate is impossible, so it is important to systematically use it in intensive sports, in particular in bodybuilding.

Cobalamin supplementation is important for vegetarian athletes because plant-based diets contain the substance in low doses.

How to take the nutrient

Cobalamin intake (oral or parenteral) depends on the level of exercise, intensity of training and the required increase in muscle tissue.

Preparations and therapeutic doses

Cobalt-containing vitamin in ampoules is available in 0.9% solution of sodium chloride . The drug has a pink or red color depending on the concentration of the active substance in it. Liquid nutrient is used for intravenous, intramuscular, intralumbar or subcutaneous administration. Along with this, vitamin B12 is produced in tablets, drops and in the form of a crystalline powder.

Therapeutic dosage for parenteral administration is 10-100 micrograms per day, for oral administration - 100-2500 micrograms (depending on the severity of the pathology).

Vitamin B12 injections of 15-30 micrograms every other day are given to correct childhood malnutrition. In macrocytic anemia with brain damage and neurological pathologies with pain syndrome, cobalamin is used in increasing dosages from 100 to 1000 micrograms per injection (under medical supervision). After the disappearance of the symptoms of the disease, it is important to continue taking the nutrient (100 micrograms per day) for two weeks.

For the treatment of other forms of anemia, vitamin B12 is used 2-3 times a week at 30-100 micrograms. Therapy is continued until a stable remission is obtained with constant monitoring of the composition of peripheral blood. If laboratory analysis reveals a tendency to develop leukocytosis or erythrocytosis, the indicated dosage is reduced or therapy is temporarily canceled.

The norm in the blood of leukocytes is 4.2-9.5 billion per liter, and erythrocytes - 3.5-4.9 trillion per liter.

In medicine, in addition to pure vitamin, combined preparations with different concentrations of the active substance (cobalamin, cyanocobalamin) are used.

Popular analogs of vitamin B12

In pharmacies you can find:

  1. Cobamamide. It is a coenzyme form of cobalamin. The drug is produced in tablets of 500 or 1000 micrograms. The substance is used for B12-deficiency anemia, chronic diseases of the digestive tract (enterocolitis, liver cirrhosis, pancreatitis, hepatitis), eating disorders, pathologies of the nervous system. Cobamamide is an ideal anabolic agent for preschool children. The drug is taken orally from 1 to 6 times a day for 500-1000 micrograms. The course of treatment depends on the form and severity of the pathology (from 7 days to 3 months).
  2. Antianemin. Liver preparation containing 0.6 micrograms of vitamin B12 per milliliter. Release form - an aqueous solution in ampoules of 2 milliliters. Pharmacological dosage for adults - 2-4 milliliters per day, for children - 0.5-2. In severe pathologies, a single portion of the substance is increased to 6-8 units per day. In terms of therapeutic effect, antianemin is inferior to pure cobalamin.
  3. Campolon. Concentrated animal liver extract with the addition of cobalt sulfate. 1 milliliter of solution contains 1.3 micrograms of vitamin B12. The drug is used for hepatitis, atrophic gastritis, pernicious anemia, cirrhosis of the liver (intramuscularly). Therapeutic dosage for adults is 2-4 milliliters per day. Children from 0 to 1 year old are prescribed 0.5 milliliters per day, from 2 to 5 years old - 1, from 6 to 12 years old - 1.5-2. Duration of therapy21-42 days. To reduce pain during injection, 1 milliliter of a 1% solution of novocaine is used simultaneously with campolone, if there is no allergy to it.
  4. Sirepar. It is a hydrolyzate of liver extract containing 10 micrograms of cyanocobalamin in 1 milliliter of the substance. Indications for the use of the drug: acute and chronic hepatitis, degenerative changes in the liver parenchyma - toxic, drug-induced or cirrhosis of the organ. The medicine is used intramuscularly and intravenously. The daily dose for adults is 2-8 milliliters, for children (0-14 years old) - 1-3. The average course dosage is 150-200 units. Before taking the drug, it is important to establish hypersensitivity to the ingredient composition. To do this, 0.1-0.2 milliliters of the substance is injected deep into the muscle. If within 30 minutes there is no negative reaction (edema, burning, redness, nausea or dizziness), then the medicine can be used in therapeutic dosages.

In the absence of severe pathologies, vitamin B12 is consumed in a prophylactic dosage (3-5 micrograms per day).

Remember, for people who have had pernicious anemia or major gastrectomy, it is important to monitor their dietary intake of cobalamin daily.

How to take vitamin B12

After purchasing a vitamin, its composition should be carefully studied, since the form of the active substance depends on the method of application of the drug.

Hydroxycobalamin is used only in the form of intramuscular and intravenous injections. Cyanocobalamin and methylcobalamin, along with the mentioned methods of administration, are used subcutaneously and intralumbally. Cobamamide is a drug exclusively for oral administration.

The best ways to administer the vitamin are intramuscular and subcutaneous. Intravenous and intralumbar injections are dangerous methods of administering drugs, so only a doctor or nurse should administer them.

Instructions for the use of cobalamin at home

To inject cobalamin, you need:

  1. Prepare a solution for injection. To do this, using a special file, open the vitamin ampoule, if necessary, add the required amount of sterile water to the vial with lyophilisate, wait until the contents dissolve.
  2. Fill syringe with liquid. After that, turn it upside down with the needle and tap lightly on the tube. Then, by gently pressing the piston, release air bubbles from the syringe and needle. This procedure should be performed until a drop of solution appears at the end of the needle. After that, close the needle with a cap.
  3. Treat the skin area with an antiseptic (chlorhexidine, alcohol,belacept). The optimal place for intramuscular injections is the upper outer side of the buttock, and for subcutaneous injections - the outer area of ​​\u200b\u200bthe forearm (where the Mantoux test is placed).
  4. Give an injection. With parenteral administration, the needle is inserted into the skin perpendicular to the buttock, slowly pressing the piston of the tube. The tip of the syringe is also taken out at a right angle to the injection site. Subcutaneous injection is performed under the fold of the dermis. In this case, the needle is inserted parallel to the forearm bone, slowly releasing the solution into the tissue. Remove the syringe without straightening the skin fold.
  5. After removing the needle, it is important to treat the injection site with an antiseptic.

If cobalamin injections cause side effects (tachycardia, headache, numbness, urticaria, shortness of breath ), it is advisable to take the drug immediately stop and inform the doctor, who will decide on further therapy

How to use vitamin B12 tablets

Cobalamin tablets are taken 30 minutes before meals with a glass of liquid. Tablets are allowed to be chewed. For children, vitamin B12 is dissolved in water or 5% dextrose solution. To liquefy tablets containing 500 micrograms of the substance, 5 milliliters of isotonic brine or 50 milliliters of distilled liquid are required.

Vitamin B12 is taken 2-6 times a day, taking into account the frequency of meals and the recommendations of the attending physician. In this case, the daily volume of the nutrient is divided into equal portions.

Dosage and duration of drug administration depend on the rate of clinical improvement and the severity of the pathology. The course of treatment varies from 7 to 30 days, and the dosage is from 250 to 1000 micrograms per day.


Cyanocobalamin is one of the important vitamins for the human body, which has a beneficial effect on almost all organs and systems (reproductive, nervous, immune, muscular, cardiovascular). vascular). Do not underestimate the importance of connection, both in childhood and for adults.

Vitamin B12 is an essential component for the proper formation of blood cells and their full cell growth. Regular intake of the substance improves digestion, normal development of the nervous and muscular systems, stabilizes mood, reduces the likelihood of frequent illnesses, improves memory, and increases the amount of energy.

Remember, natural foods rich in cobalamin are more beneficial to the body than vitamin complexes.