Vitamin B2

Vitamin G or B2 (Latin name Riboflavinum - riboflavin, lactoflavin) is an easily absorbed yellow substance, a coenzyme of various biochemical processes in the body, which performs a key function in maintaining the health of humans and animals.

Physical properties of the compound:

  • has a yellow-orange color, bitter taste;
  • stable in an acidic environment;
  • tolerates heat well (melting point reaches 280 °C);
  • poorly soluble in ethyl solutions, water (0.11 mg/ml at 27.5 °C);
  • insoluble in chloroform, benzene, acetone, diethyl ether;
  • is destroyed in alkaline solutions;
  • decomposes under the influence of UV radiation.

Despite being unstable in alkalis, riboflavin is easily reduced by addition of hydrogen at the double bonds. These properties of vitamin B2 (oxidation and reduction) underlie the course of cellular metabolism.

The structural formula of riboflavin is C17H20N4O6.

Consider in detail the physicochemical properties, significance, signs and consequences of a compound deficiency, how to make up for the shortage, which contains instructions for use (daily rate).

General information

Who discovered lactoflavin?

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Synthesis of B vitamins falls on the first half of the 20th century. However, in the process of research, scientists have found that some compounds of this category are quickly destroyed under the influence of high temperatures, while others fully retain their physical properties, continuing to work actively in the body. This factor was the impetus for a detailed study of the group and the separation of "unstable" to high temperatures thiamine ( B1 ) from riboflavin (B2), capable of maintaining its structure even when heated to 280 degrees.

The story of the discovery of the heat-resistant lactoflavin molecule dates back to the end of the 19th century, when in 1879 the scientist Bliss first obtained a useful compound. Howeveridentification of the substance dragged on for a long 50 years. And only in 1935, the German biochemist Richard Kuhn artificially synthesized a vital powder in its pure form, necessary for the proper functioning of the body of people and animals.

The name of vitamin B2 directly depends on the source of the compound:

  • verdoflavin (from plants);
  • lactoflavin (from milk);
  • ovoflavin (from egg white);
  • hepatoflavin (from the liver).

A feature of the B vitamins is an orange-yellow color, which colors the urine in a characteristic tone.

The basis of the riboflavin molecule is the isoalloxazine core (heterocyclic compound) to which the pentahydric alcohol ribitol “sticks”.

Vitamin B2 can be synthesized in the kidneys, liver, tissues of the human body, healthy intestinal microflora. The positive effect of riboflavin is enhanced by thiamine (B1).

In the food industry, vitamin B2 is used as a food coloring (E101).

The role of riboflavin

The substance takes an active part in the course of energy processes, helping the body break down sugar. Vitamin B2 in combination with proteins, phosphoric acid, in the presence of macronutrients (in particular, magnesium), produces the production of enzymes necessary for the metabolism of saccharides, oxygen transport.

Together with the compound B9, riboflavin is involved in the production of blood cells in the bone marrow, and with B1 it improves the absorption of iron.

What is vitamin G good for?

Riboflavin controls the functioning of the nervous, digestive, circulatory, and cardiovascular systems. In addition, the benefit of vitamin B2 is that it minimizes the harmful effects of toxins on the organs of the respiratory system, improves the absorption of oxygen by cells of hair, nails, skin, increases their life expectancy, participates in the synthesis of hormones, enzymes, promotes the normal course of pregnancy and the correct laying of the organs of the fetus.

Nervous system:

  • prevents cataracts;
  • improves lens focusing, eye adaptation in the dark;
  • improves sleep;
  • relieves stress;
  • prevents the occurrence of mental disorders;
  • improves metabolism in the nervous tissue;
  • reduces pathological excitability;
  • eliminates the fatigue of the organs of vision.

Cardiovascular, circulatory systems:

  • prevents the formation of blood clots (thinns the blood);
  • dilates blood vessels (combats the development of hypertension);
  • is indispensablean element for the synthesis of antibodies, blood cells;
  • takes part in the process of building energy substrates, ensuring the normal functioning of the heart.

Digestive system:

  • facilitates the absorption of fats from the intestines;
  • accelerates the conversion of B6 into a biologically active form;
  • improves biliary function of the liver;
  • protects the intestinal mucosa, stomach from mechanical, bacterial damage;
  • speeds up metabolism;
  • is involved in the metabolism of BJU, as well as tryptophan, which, in turn, is converted to niacin under the influence of riboflavin.

The simultaneous presence of riboflavin and proteins in the diet promotes wound healing and tissue repair after trauma.

Signs of deficiency and indications for use

The clinical manifestations of vitamin B2 deficiency are best studied in experimental animals. According to studies, scientists have found that the lack of riboflavin in the body of animals leads to the accumulation of products of lipid peroxidation (LPO) in the blood and the development of atherosclerosis, cataracts. These violations confirm the key function of flavoproteins in the processes of degradation of lipid peroxidation products and molecular mechanisms of synthesis.

Symptoms of riboflavin deficiency (moderate hypovitaminosis):

  • inflammation of the lips, tongue;
  • headaches;
  • oppression;
  • mental retardation;
  • increased photosensitivity;
  • loss of appetite;
  • incoordination;
  • weakness ;
  • exhaustion;
  • rash, burning sensation or pale skin;
  • impaired twilight vision, pain in the eyes;
  • bleeding of the lips;
  • peeling of the whole body.

Signs of severe hypovitaminosis B2:

  • nervous system dysfunction;
  • hair loss (baldness);
  • thyroid disorder;
  • irritability;
  • seborrheic dermatitis of the nose;
  • mental retardation;
  • generalized rash;
  • anemia;
  • inflammation of the skin;
  • impaired iron absorption;
  • malfunctions of the gastrointestinal tract;
  • insomnia;
  • angular stomatitis;
  • weakness of the heart muscle;
  • conjunctivitis, blepharitis, cataract;
  • increased corneal vascularization;
  • reduced weight gain in children;
  • stunting in adolescents.

Indications for the use of the compound:

  • thyrotoxicosis;
  • eye diseases;
  • rheumatism;
  • hypo- and ariboflavinosis;
  • work with salts of heavy metals, toxic substances;
  • hemeralopia;
  • radiation sickness;
  • asthenia;
  • circulatory failure;
  • long non-healing wounds;
  • Botkin's disease;
  • conjunctivitis, cataract;
  • enterocolitis, chronic hepatitis, colitis, liver cirrhosis;
  • pruritic dermatosis, eczema;
  • clouding of the cornea;
  • malnutrition, anemia, leukemia;
  • bowel dysfunction;
  • redheads, candidiasis, neurodermatitis, photodermatosis.

Why does the body need riboflavin?

For medicinal purposes, vitamin B2 is additionally used for: burn disease, frostbite, phototherapy, chronic hypoxia, excessive/insufficient carbohydrate nutrition, during the course of an acute infectious disease.

Contraindications to the use of riboflavin - nephrolithiasis, hypersensitivity.

The human body is not able to accumulate the compound, therefore its overdose (hypervitaminosis) is a rare phenomenon that occurs only when a synthetic vitamin is administered or consumed in large quantities, several times higher than the norm.

In this case, the excess of the substance is excreted in the urine, but the risk of the following reactions from the body increases:

  • localized itching;
  • allergic rashes;
  • tearing eyes;
  • burning sensation at the site of intramuscular injection;
  • blurred vision;
  • numbness of limbs;
  • increased blood pressure;
  • kidney disorders.

The daily rate of riboflavin for the normal course of metabolic processes in the body depends on the physiological state, physical activity, diet and age of the person.

For an adult male, this indicator is 1.6 - 1.8 milligrams / day, for a woman - 1.2 - 1.3, for adolescents - 1.4 - 1.8, for pregnant women - 2, for nursing mothers - 2.2, for infants - 0.4 - 0.6. The daily requirement for riboflavin for athletes, workers with heavy physical activity increases to 2 units, for people whose diet is rich in protein foods - up to 3 units.

The reasons for the decrease in riboflavin

The correct course of metabolic processesinvolves the transformation of vitamin B2 into the coenzymes FAD and FMN. However, some substances slow down this metabolism. Along with this, the lack of a nutrient in food in 80% of cases leads to a decrease in the rate of biochemical reactions.

Reasons for the decrease in B2 in the body:

  1. Cooking in an open dish. Given the fact that the solubility of riboflavin increases when heated, draining the "waste" liquid at the end of cooking leads to a loss of 50 - 60% of the active substance. Cooking food in a minimum volume of water ​​with a tightly closed lid will help preserve the water-soluble nutrient.
  2. Sunlight. Products left for 2 or more hours at the window lose 40-50% of the useful compound.
  3. Long term storage or defrosting. A dish placed in the refrigerator for 11 hours is completely deprived of riboflavin. When storing products in a frozen state, the daily loss of vitamin B2 does not exceed 1%.
  4. Wrong vitamin intake. The biological role of the substance, when used on an empty stomach, is reduced by 2-3 times. Therefore, lactoflavin is important to take during or immediately after a meal.
  5. Heating alkaline solutions that contain a nutrient (lemon juice, whey, milk) causes the “death” of the beneficial substance.

Sources of Vitamin B2

Group B pharmaceutical preparations containing a daily dose of nutrients are on the market today. However, to fill the daily need for riboflavin, nutritionists recommend administering it with products of natural origin, since the use of a useful compound in synthetic dragees, capsules, tablets can cause serious harm to human health in case of an overdose or an expired complex.

Therefore, the best way to provide the body with vitamin B2 is a properly balanced diet, consisting of ingredients of plant and animal origin.

Consider where he is.

The content of riboflavin in the following products implies that they are environmentally friendly, grown without the use of harmful fertilizers, chemicals, antibiotics, which pose a potential threat to human health.

Table “Which foods contain vitamin B2”
Order number Product Riboflavin content per 100 g of ingredient, mg
1 Pine nuts 88
2 Calf's liver 2.2
3 Dried baker's yeast 3
4 Fresh baker's yeast 1.7
5 Powdered milk 1.4
6 Mackerel 1.4
7 Dry whey 1.3
8 Dried cream 42% 0.9
9 Wheat shoots 0.8
10 Mustard powder 0.7
11 Almond 0.66
12 Hard cheese 0.5
13 Mushrooms 0.45
14 Chicken eggs 0.45
15 Cocoa 0.45
16 Milk chocolate 0.45
17 Pasta 0.44
18 Melange 0.44
19 Turnip 0.43
20 Sheep tongue 0.4
21 Processed cheese 0.4
22 Truffles 0.4
23 Bran 0.39
24 Condensed milk 8.5 0.38
25 Nigella 0.38
26 Stellate sturgeon caviar 0.37
27 Sesame seeds 0.36
28 Mackerel 0.35
29 Beans (soy) 0.31
30 Broccoli 0.3
31 Dried brewer's yeast 0.3
32 Dry legumes, peanuts 0.3
33 Veal 0.3
34 Curd 0.3
35 Rosehip 0.3
36 Dry lentils 0.29
37 Dried peas 0.28
38 Parsley fresh 0.28
39 Lamb ] 0.27
40 Spinach 0.25
41 White cabbage 0.25
42 Fat pork 0.24
43 Dark chocolate 0.24
44 Wheat flour 90% 0, 23
45 Boiled cauliflower 0.23
46 Asparagus 0.23
47 Rye flour 32% 0.22
48 Herring 0.21
49 Beef 0.19
50 Fresh green peas 0.16
51 Fresh milk 0.15
52 Sour cream 0.14
53 Buckwheat 0.13
54 Peanuts 0.13
55 Ovs flakes 0.13
56 Walnuts, cashew 0.13
57 Black bread 0.12
58 Figs 0.12
59 Flour wheat 72% 0.1
60 Dried dates 0.1
61 Corn 0.1
62 Grapes 0.08

The list shows that providing for a familyproducts that contain vitamin B2 in the right amount, it is not difficult at all. Fortunately, a lack of riboflavin is not a dangerous phenomenon for adults, since their body produces a substance in small quantities, which cannot be said about teenagers. The daily diet of children under 16 years of age, and especially under 10 years of age, should consist of foods rich in vitamin B2 and fully cover the daily requirement for this nutrient. Otherwise, a deficiency of riboflavin in a growing body can lead to diseases of the nervous, digestive, cardiac systems, growth retardation and the formation of pathologies in the development of internal organs.

Inclusion in the daily diet of 500 milliliters of sour milk and 100 grams of cottage cheese / hard cheese will help to almost fully satisfy the adult body's need for vitamin B2.

If one of the family members (more often the elderly or children) has cracks in the lips, you need to include almonds (150 grams), brewer's yeast in the daily menu for a week (100 grams), as well as replenish the diet with pork or beef offal. In addition, it is recommended to introduce into the diet foods rich in beta-carotene (pumpkin, carrots, blueberries, black currants, tomatoes, red peppers, apricots, persimmons, spinach, green onions, broccoli, grapefruit).

If synthetic vitamin B2 (tablets) is taken, the compound should be taken with meals. Otherwise, when riboflavin is taken on an empty stomach, poor absorption of the nutrient occurs.

Remember, all B vitamins are closely related. So, taking one of them as a medicine, the body's need for other compounds of this group increases.

Vitamin recipes

In the summer, you can saturate the body with vitamin B2 by replenishing the daily diet with 300 grams of raspberries, blackberries (0.05 mg / 100 g each), blueberries (0.02 mg / 100 g). These food plants are preserved for the winter by quick dry freezing, ground with sugar, and useful compotes and jams are prepared on their basis.

In autumn it is recommended to consume cranberries (0.02 mg/100 g). The fruits of the shrub, with proper processing, are able to retain nutritional properties, in particular, riboflavin all winter. The harvesting principle is as follows: sort the berries, choosing whole and unbroken ones, then quickly rinse under a slight pressure of running water, pour into a jar (two or three liters), pour pre-boiled cooled water, store cool (on the balcony) in a dark place (In the box). On the day you need to eat 30-50 grams of fruit.

In late autumn, after the onset of frost, you need to collect rowan berries, whichis also a source of vitamin B2 (0.02 mg/100 g). Prepare a biologically active mixture from them. To do this, a kilogram of rowan fruits needs to be sorted out, spoiled (rotten) should be eliminated. Rinse good berries (whole or broken) in running water and grind with a blender or meat grinder, adding 300 grams of walnuts or almonds. Introduce 500 grams of honey collected from mountain ash, wild rose or dandelion into the resulting nutrient mixture. Mix the gruel thoroughly, pour into an opaque glass container, store in the refrigerator.

Consume a fortified mixture during the winter at 30 to 40 grams per day with 100 milliliters of warm purified water.

Recommendations for the storage of foods rich in B2

Undesirable losses of riboflavin in vegetables, meat, fish, dairy products can be eliminated by observing the basic rules during their processing and saving.

How to save vitamin B2 in food?

  1. When choosing cottage cheese, you should give preference to a product with a soft texture: the more whey remains in it after processing the raw materials, the higher the content of riboflavin.
  2. In the process of cooking , potatoes and peas "give" vitamin B2 into the water, as a result, after draining the liquid, the finished dish is completely deprived of a useful compound. Therefore, it is recommended to cool the resulting infusion to 30 degrees and drink 200 milliliters / dose.
  3. Close the lid when cooking food. Otherwise, vitamins are oxidized and most of the biologically active components evaporate with steam.
  4. When stored in the refrigerator, vegetables are deprived of 1% of the beneficial compound daily, and when washed under high pressure, up to 5%. Given this fact, it is not recommended to purchase products in large quantities and soak in water for a long time.
  5. Boil the groats in water, and only after cooking, you can add warmed milk to the porridge.
  6. Products containing riboflavin should not be stored in the light, they must be put away in a dark place (box, basement, cellar).
  7. It is forbidden to boil pasteurized milk.
  8. Frozen foods should not be thawed before cooking, as thawing in the light causes the loss of a quarter of the beneficial compound.
  9. Milk in a transparent bottle loses 50% of riboflavin in 2 hours in the light. Therefore, you need to store an open product in a dark container in the refrigerator for no more than 3 days. Otherwise, the nutrients in it evaporate, and the liquid loses most of the vitamin B2.
  10. Losses of riboflavin during cooking are: freezing - 0%, drying - 10%,stewing / frying - 25%, boiling in water - 45%, heating - 5%.

B2's "worst enemies" are baking soda, sulfa drugs, alcohol, and estrogens. These substances completely destroy the beneficial molecules of the compound.

Thus, the largest amount of vitamin B2 is found in foods in its natural (fresh) form. However, if heat treatment is required, ingredients (eg meat, cauliflower, offal) should be cooked quickly, covered.

Vitamin B2 as a coenzyme

Riboflavin is usually found in the consumed products in a bound state - in the composition of the coenzymes flavin adenine dinucleotide [FAD] and flavin mononucleotide [FMN], which are connected by proteins. When ingested, in the digestive tract, vitamin B2 is affected by enzymes, as a result of which the beneficial compound is released and absorbed in the small intestine. After the course of this reaction, the reverse process starts in the tissues: the formation of coenzymes FAD, FMN from riboflavin, which are part of many enzymes.

What enzymes contain B2?

One of the most important enzymes produced by the human body and containing riboflavin is glutathione reductase. It ensures the restoration of glutathione (cellular antioxidant) after oxidation. This organic substance (tripeptide γ-glutamylcysteinylglycine) performs an important role: it protects cells from the harmful effects of peroxide compounds, free radicals, facilitating the body's adaptation to adverse environmental conditions.

When bonding with radicals, glutathione donates its electron to active molecules, activating the compounds. At the same time, after the reaction, the tripeptide is oxidized, losing its protective beneficial properties. In order to increase the antioxidant capacity of the cell, glutathione reductase restores the “waste” glutathione, restoring its functions.

In addition, vitamin B2, as a coenzyme, is actively involved in redox reactions. It is known that oxidative processes can cause irreparable harm to the cells of the body, as a result, slowing down their course helps, to a certain extent, to resist the development of a merciless disease - cancer.

Also, riboflavin is involved in the metabolism of vitamin B6, folic acid, niacin, iron and is part of coenzymes that promote the breakdown of BJU and their transition into an energy form.

Interactions with other substances

Cooking a small amount of food at a time (no reheating), placing frozen food directly into boiling water (nothaw) or in the oven (in aluminum foil) will help preserve riboflavin in products as much as possible.

Remember, the absorption of vitamin B2 is affected by certain medications.

Consider the compatibility of lactoflavin and other drugs.

  1. Simultaneous intake of riboflavin, pyridoxine, vitamin K and folic acid leads to a mutual enhancement of the action of nutrients.
  2. Thyroidin increases the rate of conversion of vitamin B2 to coenzyme compounds.
  3. Erythromycin and tetracycline increase the excretion of lactoflavin.
  4. Riboflavin, together with nicotinic acid, activates the detoxification mechanisms of the body, as a result of which the elimination of final metabolic metabolites is accelerated.
  5. Powerful tranquilizers (fluorothiazine, chlorpromazine), tricyclic antidepressants (imipramine, amitriptyline), and peripheral vasodilators (hydralazine, diazoxide, minoxidil) inhibit vitamin B2 utilization by interfering with the synthesis of coenzyme forms.
  6. Riboflavin increases zinc bioavailability.
  7. The combined intake of lactoflavin and iron leads to the accumulation and enhancement of the pharmacological properties of the trace element.
  8. Antipsychotics used in depression and psychosis, in particular chlorpromazine, inhibit the conversion of a nutrient into a biologically active form.
  9. The diuretic spironolactone blocks the synthesis of vitamin B2.
  10. Antihypertensive drugs enhance the transformation of riboflavin into biologically active compounds.
  11. Vitamin B2 is destroyed in the presence of boric acid.

Taking into account the mechanism of action and compatibility of medicinal substances, it is easy to draw up an effective nutrient intake regimen, and subsequently prevent beriberi.

Riboflavin during pregnancy and bodybuilding

The mother's body is the only "source" of nutrients for the developing fetus in the womb. Along with negative genetic factors, the lack of basic nutrients, in 70% of cases, leads to a violation of the course of pregnancy, premature birth, bleeding and toxicosis. In addition, most of the diseases detected in newborns are acquired during fetal development.

Numerous scientific studies confirm the existence of a direct relationship between nutrient deficiencies and malformations in the development of the embryo. In view of this, it is advisable for expectant mothers to take organic nutritional supplements and multivitamin complexes.

One of the most important nutrients during pregnancy is riboflavin (in Latin - Riboflavini). Vitamin B2 is essential for the proper formation of the nervoussystem, muscles and skeletal system in the developing fetus. The lack of this substance can lead to intrauterine death of the embryo, early birth, the appearance of congenital anomalies (growth retardation, damage to the skin, eyes) in infants, decreased lactation, and the development of seborrheic dermatitis in the expectant mother.

The daily requirement for B2 for pregnant women is 1.8 - 2.1 milligrams, and for nursing mothers - 1.9 - 2.5 milligrams. Do not be afraid if, while taking the vitamin, the urine turns bright yellow. This phenomenon is absolutely harmless and safe for both organisms.

Since lactoflavin is one of the main "participants" of protein metabolism, it is advisable to use it in strength training and bodybuilding. The vitamin is especially useful for professional athletes, as it helps to transform the energy received into the muscular relief of the body. In addition, the nutrient regulates the supply of oxygen to the muscles, as a result of which the risk of developing hypoxia during training is halved.

The daily value of vitamin B2 for bodybuilders is 3-5 milligrams. Taking riboflavin supplements doubles the results of strength training.

Effects of the use of vitamin B2

The mechanism of the biological action of riboflavin is to build two coenzymes that are involved in the synthesis of the ATP molecule and some proteins (erythropoietin, hemoglobin, catecholamines), which are part of the redox enzyme systems of the body. Along with this, vitamin B2 is an indispensable “helper” for the eyes. By protecting the retina from excessive exposure to ultraviolet rays, the nutrient is involved in the construction of visual purple. At the same time, the absorption spectra of lactoflavin (maxima) lie in the region of 445, 375, 260 and 225 nanometers.

Therapeutic effects of vitamin B2

  1. Antihypoxic. Riboflavin supports the ability of cells to synthesize and efficiently use ATP energy molecules, including when there is a violation of oxygen supply to tissues.
  2. Adaptive-trophic. With regular consumption of the vitamin, metabolic processes in the body are normalized and the functional state of the brain is improved.
  3. Detoxifying. Lactoflavin as part of complex therapy for liver restoration enhances the hepatoprotective effect of herbal preparations. Due to this, the barrier, excretory and digestive functions of the organ increase.
  4. Keratoplastic. The nutrient is used to normalize the process of skin keratinization, resorption of inflammatory infiltrates, restore the normal structure of the dermis and epidermis.
  5. Anabolic. Since vitamin B2 increasesthe activity of enzymes of plastic energy exchange and stimulates the synthesis of protein metabolism, with an increase in dosage, there is a systematic increase in muscle mass of the body.
  6. Neurotropic. Enrichment of the daily diet with products that contain lactoflavin leads to an increase in the synthesis of neurotransmitters (serotonin, dopamine, GABA, acetylcholine) in the brain and the restoration of the myelin sheaths of the nerve trunks (in combination with lecithin).

The effects mentioned are only relevant if the daily nutrient deficiency is fully covered.

Scientific research conducted in 2004 by nutritionists Ruslana Piskoppel and Vladimir Dadali confirms the fact that the concentration of biologically active substances in products has significantly decreased over the past 20 years. Therefore, every day there is a need to receive a huge amount of a variety of food. And since many vitamins, including riboflavin, are not able to accumulate in the body, it is almost impossible to maintain their required balance in the blood. Therefore, to compensate for the deficiency of nutrients, it is advisable to use nutritional supplements in tablets, capsules or in the form of dragees.

Balanced complexes of B vitamins - Neurobion, Neurostabil, Vita B Plus, Vita-Escort, Vitabalance 2000, B-50. However, these preparations, in addition to useful substances, contain capsule shells consisting of harmful ingredients: gelatin, starch, dyes. The use of liquid riboflavin (in ampoules) will help prevent a negative reaction of the body in case of individual intolerance to the components. The composition of the vitamin solution includes distilled water and pure lactoflavin.

Clinical use

For the treatment of B2 beriberi, 10 milligrams of an organic nutrient is taken 3 to 5 times a day (orally or parenterally). While taking medications, it is advisable to follow a healthy diet.

If there are seizures on the oral mucosa, to which an infection has joined, local treatment should be carried out simultaneously with therapy - lotions, ointments, rinses, antibiotics. However, avitaminosis, as an independent disease, occurs relatively rarely. Much more often, nutrient deficiency manifests itself along with other pathologies against the background of prolonged microelementosis. In such cases, vitamin B2 is combined with other drugs.

Therapeutic use of riboflavin

Pathologies of the gastrointestinal tract

It is especially important to use vitamin B2 in toxic lesions of the digestive organs, in particular, diseases Botkin. This pathology leads to impaired liver function.(carbohydrate, antitoxic, pigment) and pancreas (endocrine). As a result, riboflavin metabolism and insular activity of the blood are inhibited. The severe course of the disease is accompanied by a sharp decrease in lactoflavin in urine. According to Dr. T. N. Zabelina, vitamin B2, as part of the complex therapy of Botkin's disease, improves blood and urine laboratory parameters (Quick test, bilirubin level). As the recovery progresses, there is an increase in the excretion of riboflavin in the urine. This phenomenon is used as an indicator of the severity of the course of an infectious disease. In addition, riboflavin metabolism is also disturbed in other liver abnormalities (cirrhosis, fatty degeneration, structural degeneration). Since the affected organ is "not able" to accumulate the nutrient, as a result, hypovitaminosis gradually develops. In view of this, the use of vitamin B2 is a clinically sound decision. If the patient has diseases of the gastrointestinal tract (enterocolitis, anacid gastritis, gastroesophageal reflux, dysfunction of the small intestine), due to which the natural absorption of the vitamin is disturbed, the drug should be administered parenterally.

Heart disease

These pathologies in 95% of cases are accompanied by metabolic disorders in the myocardium. Vitamin B2, as part of complex therapy, helps to normalize metabolism in the heart muscle, since the maximum amount of riboflavin is deposited in it.

Pathologies of the endocrine ring

Elevated thyroid function and Graves' disease increase urinary excretion of vitamin B2. Therefore, in the presence of these problems, it is advisable to take riboflavin additionally. In addition, the excretion of a substance with urine is increased by pathologies of the pancreas, in particular, diabetes mellitus. Parenteral administration of the nutrient compensates for its deficiency and causes a short-term decrease in hyperglycemia. Violation of riboflavin metabolism is also relevant for people suffering from Addison's disease. In this case, the excretion of a useful compound in the urine is reduced by 3 times. Therefore, along with vitamin B2, a drug is used - deoxycorticosterone. The steroid hormone, acting on the adrenal cortex, stimulates the phosphorylation of riboflavin. As a result, normalization of the urinary excretion of the substance occurs.

Dermatology

Vitamin B2 is used in the treatment of streptococcal skin lesions, erythroderma, seborrheic eczema, exfoliative dermatitis, burns, photodermatosis.

Ophthalmic diseases

Metabolic processes in the eye proceed with the participation of lactoflavin. Therefore, the presence of ophthalmic pathologies (primary glaucoma, presenile cataract, corneal vascularization,non-infectious conjunctivitis, keratitis of unknown etiology) and functional visual disorders are direct indications for additional intake of vitamin B2. In addition, the nutrient is used in the treatment of migraine caused by eye fatigue. In the treatment of these diseases, riboflavin is used parenterally, orally and topically. For external use, the optimal form of release is eye drops (2%).

In an obstetric clinic

Pregnant women in 80% of cases have a low concentration of riboflavin in the blood. This problem is especially relevant for women in childbirth who suffer from cracked nipples. Prophylactic intake of the nutrient during pregnancy helps prevent the development of mastitis and reduce pain in the chest by 4 times. How to take vitamin B2? Expectant mothers (in the last trimester) are recommended to enter into the diet 20 milligrams of the substance per day, and women, within a week after childbirth, 20 milligrams twice a day. If cracks are present on the nipples, it is advisable to combine oral intake of the nutrient (20 milligrams 2 times a day) with topical treatment with riboflavin ointment. To do this, a 2% solution is applied to the lesion three times a day after feeding.

In cosmetology

Given the fact that lactoflavin is a “skin” vitamin, a good complexion is impossible without it. The consumption of B2-containing products in combination with the external use of riboflavin masks (1 time per week) leads to the activation of oxygen "transportation" to the tissues and improves the functioning of capillaries. This reduces acne, improves complexion and accelerates the process of skin regeneration. Vitamin B2 is indispensable for hair and nails, as it helps to normalize the metabolism of fatty acids. When choosing riboflavin cosmetics, it is important to carefully consider the brand reputation and cost. The production of high-quality products that contain a high concentration of the active substance is a labor-intensive and materially costly process. Therefore, many companies, using a negligible amount of vitamin, hide the true composition of the drug. The exception is some professional brands that are used by cosmetologists (Academie Scientifique de Beaute, Adonia Organics, Hysqia, Adina Cosmetics Professional, Beaubelle).

Diseases of the newborn

Determination of bilirubin in the blood of a child is a direct indication for phototherapy. With light exposure, in addition to the destruction of the toxin that causes jaundice, there is a natural breakdown of vitamin B2. In view of this, the nutrient is included in the complex therapy of newborns. The daily norm of riboflavin for children (0 to 6 months) is 0.3 milligrams.

For weight loss

Vitamin B2 is involved in the synthesis of hormonesthyroid gland, which regulates the body's metabolism. Therefore, for a person who wants to lose weight, this nutrient is a daily “helper”. Increase the daily dosage of riboflavin should only be prescribed by the attending physician.

Conclusion

Thus, vitamin B2 or riboflavin is one of the most important water-soluble vitamins, the substance of “health and beauty”, the coenzyme of most biochemical processes, the engine of the body in the processes of energy production in cells, a growth stimulant and the best assistant in the treatment of neurological and eye diseases. The compound plays a key role in the course of redox reactions, in the work of the cardiac, digestive, and nervous systems. Therefore, for the well-being of a person, it is important to ensure a systematic (daily) intake of riboflavin in the body in the amount of the required daily allowance.

The largest amount of vitamin B2 is found in fresh milk, pine nuts, fresh meat.

The presence of foods rich in riboflavin in the daily menu is a guarantee of good health for all family members.