Vitamin B3/PP, which is called niacin, nicotinamide due to the large number of forms, is used in medical and cosmetic industries. The beneficial properties of the compound are so unique that it is equated to a drug. The international name of the substance is nicotinic acid (in Latin "Acidum nicotinicum").
The vitamin formula was discovered in the nineteenth century to combat the severe disease pellagra. This terrible disease developed among the inhabitants of cities and villages due to an insufficient standard of living, accompanied by hallucinations, depression, nausea, vomiting and diarrhea. Soon pellagra was found in people who abuse alcohol. The literal translation of B3 / PP vitamins is warning pellagra.
Why does the body need niacin? The main function of vitamin PP is participation in the course of redox processes. Due to the effect of the substance, tissue growth is normalized, the metabolism of fat cells improves, the amount of cholesterol decreases, sugar and fats are processed into positive energy.
Why is niacin prescribed? Vitamin PP protects the body from diseases: diabetes, hypertension, etc. Nicotinic acid is used to treat disorders of the functionality of the nervous system, to combat migraine.
With a sufficient amount of vitamin PP, the human gastrointestinal tract works without failures and pathological abnormalities. When inflammation occurs, the body fights the process, it is easier to digest the incoming food, and it produces gastric juice better. B3 / PP has a positive effect on the functioning of the pancreas and liver. Vitamin occupies a leading place in the synthesis of hemoglobin, the production of red blood cells, in the ratio of hormones.
Vitamin PP helps to produce the right amount of energy, increases blood sugar during a drop in its level. The substance is prescribed in order to increase the level of metabolism of amino acids and reduce the amount of triglycerides. In addition, niacin affects the protective properties of the pancreas, which reduces the risk of problems with insulin production.
Vitamin PP should be consumed in case of problems with the nervous system, in cases of loss of concentration, manifestations of a depressive state.
Signs of excess and deficiency of niacin in the body
An adult is recommended to consume 20 mg of the substance in day. For children, the volume is set from 6 mg, depending on age. Teenage boys need an increased amount of nicotinic acid, unlike girls.
Women during pregnancy and lactation, performing athletes use vitamin PP in the amount of 25 mg per day.
Depending on the diet, the use of nutritional supplements, the body can have both a deficiency and an overdose of a substance. The reaction to the drug remotely resembles an allergy, so the benefits and harms of "nicotine" are regularly discussed on forums and chats.
Symptoms of excess vitamin B3/PP:
- deterioration of the digestive tract;
- lack of appetite;
- weakness ;
- muscle pain;
- sleep disorders;
Lack of vitamin B3/PP is manifested by the deterioration of the body:
- skin problems (redness, rashes, peeling, dermatitis, etc.);
- low blood sugar;
- pain in the upper and lower extremities;
To replenish the supply of nicotinic acid, add foods with a high content of the substance to your usual diet. Despite cooking (frying, drying, canning), 90% of the vitamin remains intact. Read more about the group of foods with high levels of niacin below.
An overdose of vitamin PP does not pose a danger to human health. Testing has shown that negative symptoms in the form of dizziness, redness of the skin in the head area, and numbness in most cases appear after taking the vitamin on an empty stomach.
For medicinal purposes, nicotinic acid is administered intravenously, in which case blood pressure may drop sharply, in order to avoid falling, it is better to inject while sitting or lying down. After a while, the processes normalize, the side effects disappear.
You should not use nicotinic acid on your own, as it is a drug prescribed by a doctor.
With prolonged use of the drug, the following symptoms are possible:
- loss of appetite;
- constant pain in the head;
- discoloration of urine;
- yellowish skin color;
- liver dystrophy.
To avoid negative consequences, you should take the drug responsibly. In parallel with nicotinamide, it will be useful to take methionine and lipotropic agents. Foods containing an increased amount of methionine:
- cottage cheese;
Nicotinic acid is a harmless vitamin when used within reasonable limits, but not everyone can use it. Contraindications regarding the intake of vitamin PP are clearly spelled out in the instructions: liver diseases, stomach and duodenal ulcers, gout ; with caution - hypertension and atherosclerotic vascular lesions.
This is not the only benefit of vitamin B3.
Vitamin B3/PP content in foods
Most people do not even know what foods contain nicotinic acid. Vitamin PP advantage in animal products:
- lean pork;
- chicken breast;
- lean fish;
- chicken eggs;
- dairy products.
It is also possible to obtain a vitamin from a plant group of products:
- yeast, etc.
Medicinal plants are rich in vitamin PP, most of all:
- wild rose;
- burdock root;
- dandelion, etc.
Niacin is present in all food groups, but absorption varies. What is the difference? Vitamins of legumes are easily absorbed by the body, while grains are difficult to digest. The synthesis of nicotinic acid occurs exclusively in the presence of the amino acid tryptophan, which is replenished in the body when proteins of animal origin are consumed.
Studies have shown that the quantitative determination of vitamin PP in food products is determined by chemical, spectrophotometric and microbiological methods.
Nicotinic acid in drugs
The properties of vitamin B3 have led to its popularity in the pharmaceutical industry. The release form of nicotinic acid has three variations:
- Ampoules. The solution is intended for intramuscular administration of the drug. Injections are prescribed for patients with concomitant diseases of the gastrointestinal tract. The advantage of this form is the immediate entry of the substance through the bloodstream into the cells where biochemical reactions occur.
- Capsules. They are prescribed for hypovitaminosis, since it is not always possible to replenish the necessary supply of vitamin with food. Results can be noted a week after the start of treatment.
- Tablets. They have the same purpose as the capsules, they are prescribed to eliminate the lack of niacin.
Storage of vitamin PP: the sealed preparation is kept in a dry place where the sun's rays do not fall. The shelf life of ampoules is four years, tablets - three. Before using the substance, examine the date of its manufacture and the integrity of the package. The authenticity of the drug is confirmed by multi-stage laboratory tests.
The use of niacin in medicine
Due to the peculiarities of the chemical structure, niacin (chemical formula C6H5NO2) is actively used in traditional medicine. Vitamin PP penetrates deeply into the cells of the body, so the range of its application is extremely wide.
Indications for nicotinic acid:
- spinal hernia;
- brain disorders (memory impairment, inattention, absent-mindedness);
- acquired diabetes mellitus;
- cardiovascular disease;
- multiple sclerosis;
- avitaminosis (lack of vitamin B3/PP leads to a decrease in immunity);
- osteochondrosis, including cervical;
- pellagra - the disease occurs due to a deficiency of vitamin PP in the human body due to malnutrition; manifests itself in people suffering from alcoholism, chronic diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, but it is often found in pregnant women;
- dysfunction of the small intestine;
- pathological abnormalities in the functioning of the liver, gallbladder, thyroid gland;
- anorexia ;
- malignant tumors;
Nicotinic acid will not be superfluous for people who use alcohol, oral contraceptives, for smokers it is completely indispensable. For children, vitamin B3/PP is prescribed exclusively by a pediatrician when there is an urgent need.
Niacin helps fight secondary symptoms of diseases. The drug is used for numbness of the fingers caused by dorsopathies. It is used together with vitamins of group B.
For prevention, vitamin PP should be taken in tablets, in the treatment of diseases it is better to use the liquid form of the drug. Treatment regimens and dosages are prescribed after examination and collection of the patient's history.
Nicotinic acid in the beauty industry
Vitamin B3/PP is regularly used in cosmetics. With the help of drugs, you can improve your health, improve your skin, hair condition. We offer to consider the popular applications of niacin.
For the face
Nicotinic acid is the main element in the nutritional and regenerative process of cells. In addition to a beneficial effect on the functionality of organs, niacin becomes a reliable assistant in the fight for the beauty and health of the skin, so it is often used for rejuvenation.
With an insufficient amount of a substance in the body, the first signs often appear on the skin: red spots, itching, decreased elasticity.
Rating world companies use 4% solution of nicotinic acid in facial skin care cosmetics. Vitamin is freely available in every pharmacy, so you can add it to your favorite creams yourself.
The positive effect of nicotinic acid on the skin of the face:
- dilates blood vessels;
- improves circulation;
- removes excess fluid from tissues;
- has an anti-inflammatory effect;
- retains moisture necessary for tissues;
- promotes regeneration;
- cleanses the skin and improves its color.
In a clinical setting, scientists have discovered another useful property - nicotinic acid reduces the likelihood of skin cancer.
Recipe for a face mask
An ampoule of nicotinic acid is added to the usual lotion, cream (1 ampoule per 50 g of face product). The vitamin remedy is applied as a standard cream, if necessary washed off with warm water. It is advisable to mix the drug in a separate container of small volume, since prolonged use of the substance leads to an overdose.
For hair growth
Nicotinic acid is considered to be a reliable agent for accelerating hair growth. A small amount of the substance on the skin can provoke an allergic reaction. Allergy in the form of redness will pass in 20 minutes, leaving no traces. The drug should be used with caution on its own.
Sometimes people are skeptical about the properties of nicotinic acid because of the repulsive name. The substance is not associated with smokers, nicotine and nicotinic acid are not the same thing.
Niacin has become popular for home use due to its availability. Women prepare healing masks, shampoos and scrubs on its basis. A couple of drops of nicotinic acid are added to your favorite shampoo and during each wash your hair is fed with vitamins.
The drug has a positive effect on the scalp, as there is a strengthening of blood vessels. Nicotinamide instantly penetrates into the inner layer of the epidermis, from where it gets to the bulb of each hair. Changes in the condition of the hair can be observed after five procedures. Folk remedies, despite the action, at first dry out the hair or enrich it with an unpleasant odor. When hair falls out, a person is ready to endure all the consequences, with “nicotine” you can not be afraid of such negative accompanying factors.
Vitamin PP is involved in the oxidative processes of the body, so the hair has a complex effect. Hair follicles are fed with vitamin, saturated with oxygen. The main advantage of hair care with nicotinic acid is moisturizing along their length, the disappearance of dandruff.
If you are wary of non-manufactured supplements, drink nicotinic acid tablets. Thus, you influence the growth of hair, strengthen the condition of the body.
To get the desired result, it is recommended to take a complex course of action on the hair: add niacin in liquid form to the shampoo and take the vitamin inside in capsules.
Nicotinic acid is considered a popular drug for hair loss and baldness. The rapid loss of hair is the main signal of a malfunction in the body, so first of all, go through an examination with a doctor, and in no case start treatment without an appointment.
To stop hair loss, nicotinic acid is rubbed into the scalp on dry hair. Additional ingredients can improve the effect of the drug, with which the vitamin formula is combined:
- decoction of medicinal herbs;
- propolis tincture;
- vitamin E.
Compatibility of drugs contributes to the achievement of a quick result in a short time. The course of treatment lasts for one month, only after consultation with a trichologist. The composition of the product for one rubbing uses only one ampoule of nicotinic acid. The vitamin is applied from the side of the temporal region, with massage movements go to the top of the head. Before the procedure, draw liquid into a syringe or pipette, so it is more comfortable to apply the vitamin in even portions to the scalp.
Acid in ampoules must be used immediately after opening, otherwise, under the influence of air, it loses its useful properties and becomes unsuitable for further use.
Carefully monitor the body's reaction to vitamin PP in its pure form, if after the procedure the skin turns red, itching appears, drink an anti-allergic drug and then dilute the acid with purified water or do not use it at all.
Recipes for hair masks based on nicotinic acid (analogues of expensive cosmetic products):
To make it you will need:
- 1 ampoule of niacin;
- 1 vitamin E capsule;
- linseed oil - 40 g;
- Eleutherococcus tincture - 20 g.
How to use: mix the ingredients and apply to washed, dried hair. After an hour, wash off the mask and wash your hair under running water.
Mask with aloe and propolis for strengthening hair:
- 40 g of nicotinic acid;
- 40 ml of aloe juice;
- 40 ml propolis tincture.
Apply the mixture to the hair and wash off after 40 minutes.
After using masks based on “nicotine”, there will be a feeling that the scalp is “burning”. This indicates an improvement in blood flow to the hair follicles. When the head itches, this is also a sign of the activation of processes. After a 30-day course, a break of at least 4 months is required.
The mechanism of action of niacin allows the vitamin to be used for eyebrows and eyelashes. You can simply dissolve nicotinic acid in ampoules with water and wipe your eyebrows with this liquid in the morning and before going to bed. The active tool for improving the growth of eyelashes and eyebrows is a special mask. For its manufacture you will need:
- castor oil (1 ml);
- burdock oil (1 ml);
- Vitamin Aevit (2 capsules);
- nicotinic acid (a couple of drops).
Mix all ingredients and apply overnight on eyebrows and eyelashes. The results will not be long in coming, be careful with the body's reaction to individual components.
B3 will be useful for men. It is used for beard growth and baldness. Recently, the beard and mustache have become a trend in men's fashion, so men should take care of their pride. It is better to apply sparing versions of masks on the face so as not to damage sensitive skin. From baldness, vitamin liquid is rubbed into problem areas with massage movements.
Nicotinic acid in the fight against excess weight
Vitamin B3 / PP is an important element of metabolism, since nicotinic acid is able to regulate the metabolism of fats and carbohydrates entering the body. body with food. The burning of calories and the weight of a person directly depend on the metabolism.
Nicotinamide is predominantly found in protein foods. Another type of vitamin is a coenzyme that speeds up metabolism, reducing the effects of bad cholesterol in the body. There is a cleansing of toxins and toxins.
Nicotinic acid, in addition to the listed benefits, plays an important role in the formation of hormonal levels. The substance has detoxifying properties, so it is recommended to introduce it into the therapy regimen after poisoning or excessive alcohol consumption. A vitamin for blood vessels and their functionality will be useful.
Nicotinic acid has been scientifically proven to help with weight loss. Vitamin PP provokes the body to produce a special substance serotonin. What is it for? The hormone is responsible for good mood. Women admit that during a stressful or depressive state they consume excessive amounts of food, in particular confectionery.
Vitamins should be taken in small doses, gradually increasing the dose by 0.1 g: for the first five days, drink nicotinic acid 0.1 g three times a day, from the sixth to 0.2 g, etc. D. The daily norm as a result does not exceed 6 g per day. Vitamin should be taken immediately after a meal, in no case should be washed down with hot drinks ( tea, coffee).
Nicotinic acid displaces vitamin C from the body, so you should additionally drink ascorbic acid in the form of vitamins. How long you need to take a vitamin complex depends on the state of the body and symptoms.
Niacin is an affordable anti-cellulite drug. There is a lot of information on the Internet about how to take it. To some extent, the recommendations have a basis for existence, since the substance improves blood circulation. Due to contraindications in the instructions for vitamin B3, it is better to refuse to use it unnecessarily. Other ways to get rid of cellulite at home: can massage, body wraps, contrast showers.
Carefully monitor the dosage of vitamin PP to avoid excessive intake of the substance. Before drinking nicotinic acid, consult a doctor and carefully read the instructions for use, pay attention to contraindications.
Vitamin B3/PP during pregnancy
In gynecology, nicotinic acid is used to eliminate premenstrual syndrome, as a means of combating spasm and heavy bleeding. Vitamin B3 / PP has a positive effect on the body, but there are still no studies that clearly indicate whether women can take nicotinic acid during pregnancy.
Instructions for use for the drug states that the vitamin is not consumed during pregnancy and lactation. But the substance is part of the vitamin complexes for expectant mothers.
Nicotinic acid is prescribed to pregnant women and nursing mothers in the following cases:
- multiple pregnancy;
- pathological processes in the liver provoked by pregnancy;
- maternal dependence on nicotine and certain drugs;
- abnormal functioning of the placenta.
It is strictly forbidden to take vitamin PP during pregnancy without a doctor's prescription. An overdose may adversely affect the development of the fetus. When breastfeeding, you can take a vitamin only if it is not contraindicated for the baby.
With controlled use of nicotinic acid, spasms in the expectant mother decrease, blood circulation improves. With oxygen starvation of the fetus, niacin improves the metabolic process and eliminates placental insufficiency. An antihypoxant in small doses provides the fetus with the right amount of oxygen.
During pregnancy, nicotinic acid is prescribed to thin the blood to prevent blood clots. In this case, vitamin B3 acts as a prevention of premature birth and possible complications.
Deficiency of nicotinic acid in the body of a future mother is manifested not only by hair loss, dry skin, but also negatively affects the psycho-emotional state of a woman. Scientific data on the change in the mood of pregnant women from a cheerful laughter to a depressive maiden confirmed that the cause of this phenomenon may be a lack of vitamin PP.
Niacin in professional sports
In small doses, nicotinic acid acts as a maintenance supplement, and in excessive amounts it has a serious pharmacological effect. Why do athletes need the substance?
Intravenous niacin 10 mg doubles the amount of growth hormone in the blood. Growth hormone stimulates the growth of muscle mass and activates fat burning processes. In bodybuilding, professional athletes increase the dose of vitamin PP to 250 mg. The final dosage depends on the height, weight and age of the athlete. The table with numbers is freely available.
There are unspoken rules among professional athletes about how to take vitamin B3/PP:
- before intense cardio or strength training;
- before intense fat burning training.
In other cases, there is no point in taking nicotinic acid. During the drying period, niacin is simply indispensable, but do not overdo it. How to use nicotinic acid in sports should be discussed with the doctor and trainer. Allergic reactions from an overdose lead to undesirable consequences before the day of the performance. For athletes, not only the regimen, proper nutrition, training, but also the right vitamin complex are important.
Nicotinic acid is an affordable remedy that will help prevent the development of serious diseases. The positive effect of the vitamin on the condition of the skin, hair and the body as a whole has long been identified and actively used.