Vitamin B5

Vitamin B5 is a structural component of the key substance of metabolism - coenzyme A, which is involved in the course of all types of metabolism - protein, lipid, carbohydrate, in the synthesis of hemoglobin, choline, the neurotransmitter acetylcholine, corticosteroids, hormones adrenal cortex and in the processes of detoxification of the body by transferring acyl residues.

General information

What is another name for the substance?

Pantothenic acid or calcium pantothenate.

The compound got its name because of its wide distribution in nature from the word, which in Latin is referred to as “pantothen” and in translation means “everywhere”.

Vitamin B5 is a water-soluble substance whose main role is to assist in the process of cellular energy production.

By its chemical nature, calcium pantothenate is a dipeptide consisting of pantothenic acid and β-alanine amino acid residues.

The empirical formula of the compound is C6H17O5N.

Despite the ubiquity of pantothenic acid in nature, a person may experience a deficiency of the substance. The abundance of white bread, semi-finished products, chips, canned foods and the lack of fresh vegetables, fruits, meat products in the diet leads to the fact that vitamin B5 practically does not enter the body, as a result, hypovitaminosis occurs.

Why is calcium pantothenate useful?

Due to the deficiency of the compound, metabolism first of all suffers, digestion worsens, and the immune-protective function decreases. A person becomes susceptible to inflammatory processes - SARS.

In order for pantothenic acid to be preserved in the maximum amount in dishes, one should refuse to eat frozen and canned foods, foods with a long shelf life, which include vinegar essence, and cook in the most sparing mode: on low heat, extremely quickly under a closed lid.

Consider functions, deficiency symptoms,excess B5, as well as what the compound contains.

History of the discovery

The discovery of calcium pantothenate is associated with a detailed study of substances of natural origin that stimulate the intensive growth of yeast. In the process of separating the "bios" into individual compounds with biotin, thiamine, inositol, scientists isolated a thermolabile acidic substance that is not adsorbed by coal, which is necessary for the development of a group of unicellular fungi.

Studying this substance in 1933, the scientist Williams found that it is ubiquitous. As a result of research carried out in the period from 1933 to 1939, the professor and a group of employees managed to synthesize the compound in a purified state from liver extracts. The resulting substance was in the form of a crystalline calcium salt. A year later, scientists managed to decipher the chemical structure of the substance, which later became known as pantothenic acid. In parallel, it was shown that liver extract freed from thiamine, riboflavin, pyridoxine, by adsorption on carbon, cures dermatological diseases that develop in chickens when fed with heated feed. The established anti-dermatitis factor was named vitamin G. Upon further study of the compound, scientists found that it was identical to the structure and functions of pantothenic acid.

To fully determine the significance of vitamin B5 for a living organism, scientists were able only after the discovery of the vital acetylation coenzyme (A), in which it is included.

Physical and chemical properties

Vitamin B5 is a light yellow viscous substance with a melting point of 80 degrees. The compound dissolves well in acetic acid, water, ethyl alcohol, poorly - in ether, amyl alcohol, organic solvents. Calcium pantothenate, reacting with water, forms colorless crystalline salts: calcium, sodium. Vitamin B5 is thermolabile. It is especially unstable when heated in alkalis and acids, hydrolyzing with the release of lactone a,g-dioxy-b, pantolactone, b-alanine through the amide bond. In neutral solutions, calcium pantothenate and its salts are relatively stable.

Amide-pantothenamide, pantothenol - derivatives of B5, are formed in the process of replacing the carboxyl group with an alcohol one. The latter compound has a high vitamin activity for animals, as a result, it acts as an acid antagonist for a group of microorganisms.

Another equally valuable substance in nature is pantetheine, which is obtained by reacting calcium pantothenate with b-mercaptoethylamine (cysteamine). When oxidized, it is processed into disulfite - pantethine. The bioproduct of pantothenic acid is part of the coenzymeA.

Metabolism of vitamin B5

Every day, the intestinal microflora of a healthy body synthesizes 3.4 milligrams of vitamin B5. After food intake, pantothenic acid is absorbed by diffusion directly from the intestine into the blood and tissues, where it is subsequently captured by red blood cells and actively transformed into coenzyme forms - coenzyme-A and phosphopanthothein. The rest of the substance circulates in the body in a free state. The catabolism of organic compounds of non-protein nature is based on their hydrolysis, while the "waste" calcium pantothenate and its metabolites are excreted in the urine.

Vitamin B5 is sensitive to heat, heat treatment of foods rich in a useful compound leads to a loss of 50% of the substance. It is destroyed not only under the influence of dry heat (grill, oven), but also as a result of exposure to solutions of acids, alkalis, which are used in the processing of food products, for example, during canning, freezing.

It is important to remember that pantothenic acid is found in food only in its protein form and is released by enzymes.

Importance of calcium pantothenate

Given the fact that inside our body, vitamin B5 and its derivatives interact with a large number of substances, list them in full - impossible. However, in order to verify the significance of the connection, consider the most basic of them. These are cholesterol, acetylcholine, fats, fatty acids, histamine, hemoglobin, amino acids, carbohydrates.

Participating in the synthesis and metabolic processes of such a variety of substances, for the proper functioning of all systems and internal organs, it is important to ensure the regular supply of calcium pantothenate in sufficient quantities.

Consider why the body needs vitamin B5:

  1. The activity of the adrenal glands. Scientists have proven that the cortex of these organs is the most efficient gland in humans, which is capable of producing hormones for six hours a day, but for this it needs significant supplies of calcium pantothenate to fight pathogenic microbes and increased psycho-emotional stress. First of all, the acid is involved in the synthesis of hormones of the endocrine glands. At the stage of formation, all glucocorticoids are associated with coenzyme A, and one way or another, their production in sufficient quantities is a reliable prevention of allergies, colitis, arthritis, and heart disease. Vitamin B5 has an anti-inflammatory effect. Participating in the synthesis of glucocorticoids in the adrenal cortex, it ensures the performance of various functions, for example, a protective reaction of the body in the event of the introduction of foreign microorganisms.
  2. Synthesis of fatty acids. As you know, these monobasic carboxylic substances are necessary for the connection of fats and the normal functioning of the brain. As a result, vitamin B5 normalizes metabolism and activates the mental activity of a person. As a side effect, the deposition of fats in the body is regulated. Therefore, pantothenic acid is an essential vitamin for weight loss and elimination of metabolic problems.
  3. The work of the nervous system. Calcium pantothenate is involved in the synthesis of mediators, hormones, neurotransmitters that ensure the proper development of the nervous system in children, adolescents, and adults. Daily intake of 5 milligrams of vitamin B5 prevents Alzheimer's and dementia. One of the most important reactions that occurs with the participation of pantothenic acid in the human body is the conversion of choline to acetylcholine, through which binding signals (impulses from the sense organs) pass, which explains the high concentration of the useful compound in brain cells.
  4. Maintaining immunity. Unlike vitamins A and E, which fight free radicals, bacteria, viruses, activating the protective function of the body, the biological role of pantothenic acid is the synthesis of antibodies. B5 deficiency leads to a sharp decrease in the number of immunoglobulins, as a result, a person becomes more vulnerable to the harmful influence of pathogens from the outside.
  5. Normalization of cholesterol metabolism. Calcium pantothenate inhibits the process of plaque clogging of arteries by regulating the synthesis of fatty acids. Thanks to this property, vitamin B5 is a natural “drug” that effectively fights atherosclerosis.
  6. Power generation. Pantothenic acid starts the process of lipolysis in the body - the release of triglycerides from fat cells with their subsequent burning. The course of these procedures is accompanied by the production of additional energy, which is needed during intense physical exertion and increased mental work.
  7. Promotes rapid healing of wounds, tissue renewal, preservation and restoration of the barrier properties of mucous membranes.
  8. Removes depressive disorders, forgetfulness, distraction, doubts.
  9. Prevents side effects from antibiotics.
  10. Reduces pain in rheumatoid arthritis.

In addition, pantothenic acid is needed to maintain healthy skin and hair. It prevents the formation of wrinkles, premature appearance of age spots, inhibits the appearance of early gray hair. By participating in the synthesis of corticosteroids and hemoglobin, B5 has a positive effect on the fight against stress.

Calcium pantothenate –the only vitamin that can be absorbed through the skin, thanks to this property, the substance is used in the production of anti-burn drugs, cosmetics.

Thus, it is extremely difficult to overestimate the positive properties of organic matter, since the slightest drawback will immediately hit the work of almost all organs and systems.

Vitamin B5 hypovitaminosis

Consider the sequence of pantothenic acid deficiency symptoms:

  1. Fatigue, fatigue. The reason for the appearance of these reactions is that calcium pantothenate is consumed at the highest rate in the muscles, and the lack of connection in the muscles leads to a drop in the performance of the body as a whole.
  2. Nervous disorders. First of all, hypovitaminosis leads to sleep disturbance. Further, as a result of chronic lack of sleep, the work of the central nervous system worsens, psycho-emotional overstrain occurs, burning in the toes, depression develops .
  3. Head, muscle pain. Especially often, athletes experience pain in the muscles, with a deficiency of B5. This phenomenon occurs due to a violation of metabolic processes that lead to the complete utilization of lactic acid. As a result, the athlete experiences muscle pain, feels tired, as after a hard marathon.
  4. Deterioration of the condition of the skin (the appearance of dermatitis, seborrhea, eczema), hair loss, growth retardation and fragility of the nail plate.
  5. Digestive disorders. At the first stages, the characteristic symptoms of hypovitaminosis of pantothenic acid in the human body are lack of appetite and nausea, if the lack of an organic compound is not compensated, chronic indigestion of food develops, the constant occurrence of diarrhea, constipation, peptic ulcer, gastritis and cholecystitis.
  6. Attacks of “burning” pain in the legs at night (not cramps), accompanied by a sharp reddening of the skin in the area of ​​​​the feet.
  7. Metabolic disorders that lead to hormonal imbalance in women. These problems are especially dangerous during menopause, as they can cause not only sudden changes in pressure, but also ataxia.
  8. Growth retardation (rarely halt) in adolescents, weight loss.
  9. Exhaustion caused by indigestion, constant fatigue.
  10. Weakened immune system, susceptibility to acute respiratory infections.
  11. Kidney dysfunction associated with improper production of various hormones. As a rule, problems with the urinary organs occur extremely rarely, in the advanced stages of hypovitaminosis.
  12. Diseases of the heart and blood vessels caused byviolation of the synthesis of glucocorticoids, cholesterol. “Clogging” of the arteries leads to the development of atherosclerosis.
  13. Visual disturbances (in some cases, blindness).

During the Second World War, among the prisoners of war in Japanese camps, there was a widespread syndrome of "burning in the feet", which occurred as a result of a severe violation of a healthy diet. In addition, the deficiency of pantothenic acid in soldiers was accompanied by mental impairment, central scotoma, pallor of the nipples of the optic nerves, and visual impairment. At the same time, the inclusion of 30 milligrams of a mixture of B vitamins in the diet eliminated these phenomena, saved patients from glossitis, stomatitis, diseases of the cornea, sclera, conjunctivitis.

In severe cases, supplementation was increased to 80 milligrams per day.

Factors that cause B5 deficiency

Consider the reasons why the body begins to experience a deficiency of a substance:

  1. Prolonged use of sulfonamides, antibiotics. These drugs block the synthesis of active derivatives from vitamin B5. As a result, even with an abundance of pantothenic acid in food, the body may be deficient in the compound.
  2. Lack of proteins, fats in the daily menu. The intake of proteins, triglycerides accelerates and facilitates the absorption of calcium pantothenate. Therefore, men, women and children who adhere to a vegetarian and raw food diet should carefully approach the formation of their diet in order to prevent non-assimilation of the compound.
  3. Lack of vitamins B1, B2, C, which are actively involved in the synthesis of pantothene and coenzyme-A.
  4. Disturbances in the work of digestion (impaired absorption of food) - malabsorption syndrome. In the case of the development of this disease, food with a high content of useful organic compounds passes through the body in transit (with non-absorption of nutrients from food).

Deficiency of pantothenic acid leads to diseases of the blood, skin, nails, duodenal ulcer, hypoglycemia.

Given the fact that vitamin B5 is found in many plant and animal foods, deficiency of the compound in the human body is rare and, in most cases, occurs due to an unbalanced diet nutrition or under the influence of factors that contribute to the neutralization or non-absorption of the beneficial substance.

Hypervitaminosis B5 is more common. An excess of the compound is non-toxic to humans. A single intravenous injection of 500 milligrams of calcium pantothenate does not causeside effects from the body. In rare cases, there is dehydration, insomnia, agitation, increased heart rate, headache, nausea.

The body's need for pantothenic acid

The daily intake of vitamin B5 for an adult is 10-15 mg, for pregnant women, lactating - 15-20 mg, for children: up to years - 2 mg, from 1 to 6 years - 4 mg, from 6 to 10 years - 5 mg, from 10 to 14 years - 7 mg.

Additional intake of calcium pantothenate is prescribed in the following cases:

  • for infectious diseases;
  • eating low-calorie foods;
  • intense physical activity;
  • in the postoperative period;
  • during times of stress;
  • people of retirement age (over 55);
  • for polyneuritis, neuralgia, bronchial asthma, disorders of the central nervous system, diseases of the gastrointestinal tract;
  • to improve the condition of nails, hair, skin;
  • during the period of antibiotic use.

Only the attending physician will be able to determine the required daily dose of the compound.

In the case of progression of dermatological diseases, one of the fundamental drugs of treatment is pantothenic acid, which is prescribed in a dose significantly higher than the daily norm for a healthy person (up to 1500 milligrams per day).

To combat acne, the dosage of B5 is increased to an impressive amount - up to 10,000 units per day.

Vitamin sources

Vitamin B5 is widely distributed in nature. The substance is synthesized by microorganisms, green plants: many bacteria, fungi, yeast. Despite the fact that animal tissues cannot produce pantothenic acid, however, they are able to produce coenzyme A from it.

The largest amount of B5 is found in plant foods and offal.

​​
Which foods contain pantothenic acid
Product name B5 content in milligrams per 100 grams of product
Green peas, shelled 15.0
Baker's yeast 11.0
Soy 6.8
Beef 6.4
Pork liver 5.8
Beef liver 4.0 – 9.0
Cod roe 3.6
Royal jelly of bees 3.6 – 26.5
Apples 3.5
Pork kidneys 3.0
Rice bran 3.0
Egg yolk2.7 – 7.0
Powdered milk 2.7
Ceps 2.7
Buckwheat 2.6
Beef kidneys 2.5 – 4.0
Oats 2.5
Dried peas 2.5
Rice 2.0
Heart of cattle 2.0 – 6.0
White wheat bread 1.8
Mushrooms 1.7 – 2.5
Peanut 1.7
Cod 1.6
Cocoa powder 1.5
Eggs 1.4 – 2.7
Avocado 1.4
Asparagus 1.4
Mackerel roe 1.3
Rye 1.2
Wheat 1.2
Beans 1.2
Cashew 1.2
Pistachio 1.0
Sorghum 1.0
Barley 1.0
Flaxseed 0.99
Cauliflower 0.98
Herring 0.94
Rye bread 0.9
Dates 0.78
Salmon 0.66
Garlic 0.6
Kefir 0.6
Chicken 0.6
Curd 0.6
Broccoli 0.6
Corn 0.6
Dried apricots 0.52
Meat (lamb, veal, beef) 0.5 – 1.5
Pumpkin 0.5
Ham 0.5
Hard cheese 0.5
Figs 0.4
Yogurt 0.4
Potato 0.32 – 0.65
Carrot 0.3
Wheat flour 0.3
Milk 0.3
Grapefruit 0.3
Eggplant 0.3
Bell pepper 0.3
Lemon 0.3
Cranberry 0.3
Strawberries 0.26
Banana 0.25
Orange 0.25
Sardine 0.21
Navaga 0.2
Pineapple 0.2
Beans 0.2
Beets 0.2
Fennel 0.2
Kiwi 0.2
Watermelon 0.2
Spinach 0.2
Halibut 0.15
Onion 0.13
Tomatoes 0.1 – 0.37
Strawberry 0.1
Ma line 0.1
Mustard 0.1
Leek 0.1
Raisin 0.1
Plum 0, 1

The main sources of pantothenic acid are peas, brewer's yeast, royal jelly of bees. However, there are products that negatively affect the beneficial bacteria of the intestinal microflora (for example, carbonated drinks, canned food, chips), their intensive use leads to a decrease or complete cessation of the production of vitamin B5 in the human body.

When preparing food, it is important to remember that calcium pantothenate, when exposed to high temperatures (inincluding during canning) is destroyed by 50%, and during freezing - by 30%.

During the cooking process, part of the substance passes into water. Therefore, foods rich in a useful compound, if possible, should be consumed raw or subjected to minimal heat treatment.

Therapeutic uses of pantothenic acid

The clinical use of vitamin B5 is currently under investigation. In view of this, pantothenic acid has a limited scope. In medicine, a water-soluble nutrient is used as a drug that regulates the functioning of the nervous system and metabolic processes in the body. In addition, the vitamin is prescribed at a high risk of developing pantothenic insufficiency.

Clinical application of the nutrient

  1. Tuberculosis. Phthisiologists B. Ya. Stukalova and E. S. Stepanyan experimentally established that in the treatment of pulmonary pathology, vitamin B5 eliminates the toxic effects of antibiotics on the body. In view of this, the nutrient is used when side effects from treatment with anti-tuberculosis drugs occur, limiting the possibility of further continuation of therapy. One of them is a severe vestibular disorder. However, it should be borne in mind that with the appearance of chronic hypertension, allergies or kidney dysfunction, it is ineffective to use calcium pantothenate.
  2. Diseases of the digestive system. Since vitamin B5 is a participant in metabolic processes in the body, it is used as part of the complex treatment of certain liver diseases. However, research in this area is still ongoing. The results obtained by the therapist - gastroenterologist A. V. Frolkis, indicate a favorable effect of the "calcium salt" on the functional state of the digestive tract. The doctor found that prolonged intake of the nutrient causes a decrease in the secretory function of the stomach, without increasing the acidity of the digestive juice. Along with this, B5 is used in the clinic for the treatment of gastric and duodenal ulcers.
  3. Decurarization after anesthesia. Following surgery, there is a need for therapy aimed at stopping the action of muscle relaxants and eliminating intestinal atony. In the course of scientific research, doctors of medical sciences Ya. M. Khmelevsky and V. A. Kovalev revealed the anticurar properties of pantothenic acid. The experiment involved 30 people with heart disease after surgical anesthesia. For intravenous administration, the highest single dose of the vitamin was used - 500 - 700 milligrams. This portion of the substance removed residual curarization in 25 patients, and the rest of the patients required additional administration of stronger analogues, in particularprozerin. The results obtained allowed doctors to conclude that pantothenic acid is safer than the last drug, but weaker in anticurative action. Therefore, it is advisable to use calcium pantothenate in the postoperative period with residual effects of anesthesia.
  4. Skin pathologies. In dermatology, the drug is used to treat burns, anal fistulas, pruritus, itchy dermatosis, leg ulcers, purulent wounds, urticaria, light erythema, herpes zoster, allergic dermatitis, sweating of the extremities, inflammatory processes in the oral cavity. The combined intake of pantothenic acid (50-100 milligrams per day), organic vitamin C (2-4 grams per day) and steroid drugs leads to an improvement in the clinical course of systemic lupus erythematosus and accelerates the formation of granulation tissue. Given that vitamin B5 regulates the sebaceous glands, it is used in cosmetology for seborrheic baldness of the head, excessive dandruff and acne on the face and body. Taking 100 milligrams of the nutrient per day (for hair and acne) helps to normalize the production of skin secretions, as a result of which the skin acquires an even shade, and curls - strength, elasticity and shine. Calcium pantothenate is administered orally and parenterally in the form of tablets or an aqueous solution for injection.

Today, new nosologies enter the spectrum of vitamin B5 use in pharmacological doses (for children - 30 milligrams per day, for adults - 50-100 milligrams). Recent studies confirm that pantothenate, administered to patients with autoimmune arthritis, reduces swelling and destruction of articular cartilage and reduces immunological indicators of the activity of the process. In addition, in determined non-insulin dependent diabetes, the nutrient exhibits a hypolipidemic effect, since it inhibits the biosynthesis of low density lipoproteins in the liver.

Professor R. Williams, who discovered this vitamin, claims that the daily requirement for a pregnant woman is at least 50 milligrams per day. The indicated dosage, according to the doctor, halves the number of miscarriages and intrauterine malformations of the fetus.

In clinical practice, therapeutic doses of pantothenic acid (200-500 milligrams) are used during a protracted illness, epilepsy, with complications after encephalitis, hyperkinesis (tic, tremor, parkinsonism, myoclonus), emotional or physical overload.

Calcium pantothenate, due to the lack of cumulative properties, is easily excreted in urine, so overdose is extremely rare.

Vitamin B5 in bodybuilding

Vitamin B5 is an essential nutrient for bodybuilding. It is involved in the synthesisfatty acids and steroid hormones, the utilization of lactic acid in the muscles, and also regulates the processes of muscle recovery.

Studies conducted by the doctor Yu. Bulanov testify to the powerful anabolic effect of pantothenic acid. Under the influence of taking therapeutic doses of the substance (1-3 grams), athletes increased muscle strength and began to gain muscle mass. Moreover, in some cases, the effect of the use of vitamin B5 exceeded the result of the use of anabolic steroids.

Interestingly, at the beginning of taking the "calcium salt" in the muscles, a kind of discomfort occurs, caused by the activation of the synthesis of acetylcholine. This inconvenience is a short-term phenomenon, since the tone of the parasympathetic department of the nervous system independently increases only up to a certain point. After that, the stiffness disappears. In the future, the excitation of the autonomic nervous system (parasympathetic and sympathetic divisions) increases simultaneously and in a balanced way. In view of this, the tolerance to high temperatures increases, the heart rate slows down, as a result, the working capacity and the volume of training loads double.

The increase in muscle relief, while taking pantothenic acid, occurs without an increase in protein intake. This phenomenon occurs due to the slowing down of the breakdown of protein structures (anti-catabolic effect). Along with this, the vitamin strengthens the nervous system, maintaining the effect after the abolition of its use.

In bodybuilding, resistance to stress is of paramount importance, since the nerve center is initially depleted, and then the muscle, as a result of which the athlete's performance decreases. Therefore, it is advisable to take calcium pantothenate during competitions and intense training loads.

The optimal source of vitamin B5 is Calcium Pantothenate, which has anti-stress, anticonvulsant and sedative effects.

In case of increased anxiety, vitamin U (in equal proportions) is used simultaneously with the nutrient.

In addition to bodybuilding, it is advisable to use pantothenic acid to increase endurance in aerobic and strength sports (marathon running, powerlifting, bodybuilding).

Drugs

Considering the fact that calcium pantothenate deficiency is extremely rare, severe deficiency symptoms occur only in people who have been on a special diet for a long time (for scientific purposes). However, during pregnancy, professional sports and serious illnesses, you cannot do without additional vitamin intake. In clinical practice, in 70% of cases, drugs containinga-pantothenic acid in the form of calcium salt (Ca pantetonate). This vitamin is produced in tablets (10 milligrams each) and in ampoules (20% solution).

Indications for the use of the substance:

  • allergic reactions (hay fever, dermatitis);
  • toxemia of pregnancy;
  • pulmonary pathologies (bronchitis, pneumonia, tuberculosis);
  • hyperthyroidism;
  • paresthesia, neuralgia, polyneuritis, depression ;
  • diseases of the digestive tract (pancreatitis, colitis, gastroduodenitis, ulcers, hypomotor intestinal dyskinesia);
  • circulatory failure;
  • bronchial asthma;
  • trophic ulcers, burns;
  • alcoholism;
  • celiac disease;
  • thrush ;
  • acne;
  • autism, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder;
  • cystitis;
  • seborrhea, alopecia;
  • conjunctivitis;
  • abstinence syndrome (teenage drug addiction and alcoholism).

In pharmacotherapy, along with classical pantothenate, analogs containing d-homopantothenic acid are used. One of these drugs is Pantogam. The spectrum of its pharmacological properties differs significantly from the previous substance, since γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) replaces β-alanine in the calcium salt molecule.

Instructions for the use of the drug

“Pantogam”, when it enters the body, loses calcium ions, turning into homo-pantothenic acid, a natural homologue of vitamin B5. The drug has a pronounced nootropic and anticonvulsant effect, potentiating the hypnotic effect of barbiturates. In addition, the vitamin stimulates anabolic processes in nerve cells, increases the brain's resistance to the effects of toxic substances and hypoxia, combines a mild stimulating effect with a moderate sedative effect, activates physical and mental performance, reduces motor excitability, improves GABA metabolism in chronic alcoholism and after ethanol withdrawal..

Indications for use (in complex therapy):

  • cognitive impairment in neurotic disorders and brain lesions (including the consequences of craniocerebral brain injuries and neuroinfections);
  • extrapyramidal disorders in people with hereditary pathologies of the nervous system (myoclonus epilepsy, Parkinson's disease, hepatolenticular degeneration, Huntington's chorea);
  • cerebrovascular insufficiency caused by blockage of cerebral vessels;
  • extrapyramidal neuroleptic syndrome (akinetic and hyperkinetic);
  • senile dementia (initial stage);
  • schizophrenia with cerebral insufficiency (together with antidepressants and antipsychotics);
  • residual organic lesions of the brain;
  • epilepsy with mental retardation (in combination with anticonvulsants);
  • cerebral palsy;
  • neurogenic urinary disorders (urgency, enuresis, pollakiuria);
  • perinatal encephalopathy in children (from the first days of life);
  • mental retardation of various etiologies;
  • psycho-emotional overload;
  • neurosis-like conditions (stuttering, tremor, tic, encopresis, enuresis);
  • mental retardation in children (disorders of speech, motor functions, formation of school skills - writing, reading, counting);
  • inflammation of the facial nerve.

Pantogam is taken orally 15 to 20 minutes after a meal. The daily dosage for adults is 1.5 - 3 grams, for children - 0.75 - 3 grams. The course of therapy - 1 - 5 months, after six months, therapy can be repeated.

Contraindications:

  • pregnancy;
  • phenylketonuria (because the syrup contains aspartame);
  • severe kidney disease (in the acute phase);
  • hypersensitivity;
  • breastfeeding period;
  • children under 3 years of age;
  • hemophilia.

Remember to use pantogam in therapeutic doses only under the supervision of your doctor.

Use of dexpanthenol

Dexpanthenol is a synthetic derivative of vitamin B5 used for external use. In the molecular lattice of a compound, an alcohol group replaces an acid group. Since dexpanthenol, when ingested, turns into pantothenic acid, their vitamin activity is comparable.

This compound, as part of coenzyme A, is involved in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism, the formation of porphyrins, acetylcholine and corticosteroids.

The main advantage of the ointment is good penetration into the deep layers of the dermis and blood flow. Pantothenic acid, by stimulating the movement of epithelial cells and enhancing proliferative activity, increases the density of collagen fibers, accelerates granulation and epithelialization of the wound defect, reduces itching, inflammation, irritation of the skin and mucous membranes. Due to this, dexpanthenol has a regenerating, dermatoprotective and moderate anti-inflammatory effect.

The drug is used to moisturize the stratum corneum of the dermis, reducetransepidermal moisture loss, maintaining the elasticity of connective tissue, protecting the body from exposure to UV rays. In addition, the "vitamin" improves the functional state of the scalp, as it prevents the formation of dandruff, reduces hair loss and protects them from the effects of negative environmental factors. Due to these properties, dexpanthenol is successfully used in the creation of cosmetics: masks, shampoos, creams, balms, styling sprays, mousses, sunscreen emulsions.

Today, on the European market, there are 3 monocomponent and 2 combined preparations of dexpanthenol:

  • Panteksol Jadran (Jadran);
  • Bepanthen (Bayer);
  • Panthenol-ratiopharm (Ratiopharm);
  • Pantevenol (Borschagovsky CPP);
  • Pantestin-Darnitsa (Darnitsa).

These medicines are available in the form of ointment, cream, gel and spray.

In medicine, panthenol emulsion is included in a set of measures aimed at eliminating dermatological diseases.

Scope in clinical practice:

  • trophic ulcers and bedsores in the regeneration phase;
  • granulating burn wounds;
  • corneal erosion, keratitis;
  • preparation of painful ulcers for autodermoplasty and post-rehabilitation period (to improve engraftment of skin grafts);
  • sunburn;
  • prevention of radiation damage to the skin and mucous membranes (against cancer cells);
  • eczema, neurodermatitis;
  • abrasions, scratches, cuts;
  • diaper rash in children, diaper dermatitis (in pediatrics);
  • cracked and sore nipples (during lactation);
  • cervical erosion, anal fissures, damage to the vaginal mucosa.

In addition to topical preparations, systemic dexpanthenol, developed by the Czech company Dr. Muller Pharma. This drug is produced in capsules, which helps to expand the pharmacodynamics, and as a result, increase the possibilities of the therapeutic use of the substance.

Czech panthenol, unlike analogues used as reparants, has antiallergic, neurotropic, antitoxic, immunomodulating, anti-inflammatory properties. In addition, the "vitamin" lowers blood pressure, improves myocardial contractility and intestinal motility, stimulates carbohydrate, lipid and protein metabolism.

Interactions of calcium pantothenate with other substances

Since pantothenic acid plays a key role in nutrient metabolism,it is important that the nutrient that enters the human body is fully absorbed. To do this, before using it, you should carefully study the scale of compatibility of the substance with other elements:

  1. Full absorption of vitamin B5 occurs only in the presence of thiamine and ascorbic acid.
  2. Calcium pantothenate enhances the pharmacological properties of cardiac glycosides.
  3. The combined use of pantothenic acid and anti-tuberculosis drugs leads to a weakening of the side effects of the latter.
  4. Vitamin B5 facilitates the absorption of choline, folic acid, and potassium.
  5. Antibiotics and sulfonamides disrupt the endogenous synthesis of calcium pantothenate.
  6. Caffeine, barbiturates and alcohol halve the concentration of the vitamin in the body.
  7. Simultaneous intake of calcium pantothenate, ascorbic acid, riboflavin, niacin, cholecalciferol and vitamin B9 leads to a mutual enhancement of the action of nutrients.
  8. Copper reduces the pharmacological properties of pantothenic acid.
  9. Oral contraceptives destroy the nutrient contained in the body.
  10. Ingestion of pantothenic acid and proteolytic enzymes (destroying protein) leads to the destruction of the calcium salt.
  11. When diuretics (diuretics) and vitamin B5 are combined, the latter is rapidly removed from the body.
  12. Calcium pantothenate potentiates the action of drugs that improve intestinal motility.
  13. Iron and manganese inhibit nutrient absorption.

Considering these nuances, it is easy to draw up a “correct” treatment regimen that will help alleviate the clinical course of the disease, improve the functional state of the affected organs and maintain the immune status of the body. In the presence of severe pathologies, it is important to first consult with your doctor to determine the dosage of vitamin B5 before taking the nutrient.

Thus, vitamin B5 is the most important component of coenzyme A, which is involved in the processes of acetylation, oxidation, restoration of cell tissues, and BJU metabolism.

It is possible to maintain the optimal amount of pantothenic acid in the body only if a healthy lifestyle is observed. A careless attitude to nutrition, an unbalanced diet lead to a systematic lack of vitamin B5: neither from the intestinal flora, nor from food.

As a result, hypovitaminosis of the compound occurs with the ensuing consequences.