Vitamin K

Vitamin K is a lipophilic (fat soluble) and hydrophobic compound necessary for the synthesis of proteins that provide a sufficient level of blood clotting - coagulation. The substance plays a primary role in the course of metabolic reactions in the connective tissue, bones and is necessary to maintain the normal functioning of the kidneys. Vitamin K ensures the absorption of calcium and its interaction with ergocalciferol (D2) and cholecalciferol (D3). The nutrient is destroyed under the influence of direct sunlight, alkaline environment.

According to the nomenclature recommended in 1966 by the International Biochemical Union, vitamin K is a group of quinones with isoprenoid side chains: phylloquinones (K1) and menaquinones (K2).

The structural formula of the compound is C31H46O2.

Compared to other nutrients ( A, E, B, C, PP ), little is known about vitamin K, but the benefits and importance of the substance should not be underestimated. Part of the reason for the lack of research on this substance is that its deficiency in the body is a rare occurrence. Therefore, manufacturers rarely introduce the nutrient into the composition of vitamin preparations, as a result, the name of the substance is not well known.

Historical background

In 1929, during the study of cholesterol metabolism in birds, scientists found that chickens fed artificial low-fat foods (starch, casein, salt mixture, yeast extract) appear hemorrhages on the mucous membrane of the digestive tract, in the skin and muscles, which are not prevented even with the introduction of vitamin C (lemon juice) in the diet. After exhaustion of the organism, the experimental animals died. When feeding chickens with extracted ether, fish / meat meal, a high level of their mortality was also observed.

In progress in 1934 scientists came to the conclusion that the causedevelopment of hemorrhagic syndrome in birds - the absence of an unknown factor "X" in the feed, which differs from vitamins A, C, D.

In 1935, a Danish biochemist, physiologist reported the presence of a new compound in tomatoes, cabbage, pork liver. Synthesized antihemorrhagic vitamin, due to participation in blood coagulation, the scientist named from the word "coagulation" - Coagulations vitamin or abbreviated "K". Subsequently, during development, concentrates of the fat-soluble compound were recovered. Over the next 3 years, it was found that the lack of vitamin K in the body of animals and humans is accompanied by a decrease in the amount of prothrombin in the blood. A year later, the compound was obtained in its pure form: from alfalfa and rotting fishmeal in the Dam and Doisy laboratories, respectively. The chemical nature of open preparations differed from each other. Therefore, the first substance was given the name K1, the second - K2. At speed 3, the laboratories synthesized vitamin K1. After that, quinones with different K-vitamin antihemorrhagic activity were derived.

Physical and chemical properties

In living organisms, K-vitamins are derivatives that differ in the nature of the side chains.

Phylloquinone is 4-naphthoquinone and 2-methyl-1. The first element contains a side chain in position 3, represented by a wick radical with 20 carbon atoms.

Compound K1 is a viscous light yellow liquid, highly soluble in chloroform, diethyl ether, hexane, acetone, benzene, ethyl alcohol, insoluble in water, fluoresces. The boiling point is 115 - 145 degrees, crystallization -20. Phylloquinone is resistant to infrared rays, but decomposes under ultraviolet radiation. The presence of 2 asymmetric carbon atoms determines the optical activity of the substance.

Menaquinone (an obsolete name is farnoquinone) has 35 carbon atoms in a side chain with 7 double bonds, which is represented as a farnesyldigeranyl residue.

Vitamin K2 - 2-methyl-3-difarnesyl-1,4-naphthoquinone - yellow crystalline powder. The compound intensively absorbs ultraviolet rays, dissolves in organic solvents, and melts at a temperature of 54 degrees.

In humans, K1 and K2 can be converted into each other, and in birds, K2 into K2

  • .
  • Menadione or vitamin K3 is a lemon-yellow crystalline substance with a characteristic odor. The compound is poorly soluble in water, the melting point reaches 160 degrees. By nature, K3 is a precursor to vitamin K2. Today menadione sodium bisulfite ("Viskol") is used in medical practice in the form of a medicinal product, an analoguevitamin K. The agent has a hemostatic effect, increases blood clotting, promotes the synthesis of prothrombin, proconvertin, stimulates K-vitamin reductase.

    Consider the benefits of the nutrient, signs of hypo- and hypervitaminosis, indications and contraindications for use, food sources of the compound (list).

    The value of vitamin K

    The main biological role of the antihemorrhagic factor is participation in the synthesis of blood proteins that are involved in its coagulation. Thanks to this component, when a blood vessel is damaged, rapid plasma clotting occurs with the formation of a clot.

    In addition, vitamin K regulates the content of formed elements in the blood: it contributes to the constant synthesis of new platelets, which, if necessary, are able to “close up” the wound at any time.

    With the participation of the compound, special transport proteins are formed that ensure the movement of nutrients between internal organs and tissues. Vitamin K maintains the structure and structure of cartilage and bone tissue.

    Let's consider what else it is needed for:

    1. Ensures the normal development of the skeleton in children, adolescents and protects against osteoporosis in the elderly.
    2. Participates in anaerobic respiration, which occurs in the nervous tissue during oxygen starvation, and in muscles during intense physical exertion.
    3. Creates conditions for the mutual metabolism of calcium and vitamin D.
    4. Takes part in redox reactions, the synthesis of sphingolipids in the brain and enzymatic processes, which lead to the formation of γ-carboxyglutamic acid residues.
    5. Neutralizes the strongest poisons: coumarin, aflatoxin. When released into the human body, toxic substances can cause malignant tumors, destroy liver cells, and phylloquinone neutralizes these toxins.
    6. Regulates blood sugar levels.
    7. Normalizes the body's energy reserves.
    8. Prevents age-related changes, reduces the level of interleukin-6. The appearance of this chemical in the body is a sign of aging for the immune system.
    9. Has an antibacterial, analgesic effect.
    10. Helps reduce muscle spasms and relax the uterus, eliminating discomfort during the menstrual cycle.

    What else is Phylloquinone useful for? anoxic) breathing, prevents bleeding at birth. Nutrient antagonists(warfarin, phenindione, acenocoumarol) - drugs prescribed for thrombosis.

    Vitamin K is used for the treatment and prevention of intestinal and stomach motility disorders.

    Daily Value

    The need for vitamin K is partially met through the biosynthesis of the compound by the intestinal microflora and through food intake. The amount of phylloquinone and menaquinone required for mandatory daily intake has not been precisely established. This indicator is calculated on an individual basis and depends on the weight of a person: 1 microgram of a nutrient per 1 kilogram of body weight. Usually, 300 micrograms of a useful compound per day comes with food, which is slightly more than the daily norm, but this does not lead to signs of an overdose and the development of adverse reactions.

    According to the literature, in the first days of life, the recommended daily requirement for newborns is 2 micrograms, for infants under one year old the norm increases to 2.5, for children from 1 to 3 years old - 20, from 4 to 8 years - 30, from 9 to 13 years - 40, for adolescents from 14 to 18 years - 50, for adults - 60 - 90.

    During pregnancy and lactation, it is recommended to consume no more than 140 micrograms of synthetic vitamin K per day. In the last trimester, the amount of the nutrient (with drugs) must be reduced to 80-120 micrograms per day, otherwise an excess of the substance in the mother's body can cause the development of toxic reactions in the newborn.

    Metabolism of the vitamin compound in the body

    Absorption of vitamin K occurs in the upper small intestine. Moreover, fat-soluble forms of the nutrient, unlike water-soluble ones, are absorbed in the presence of bile acids. In view of this, the transportation of these substances occurs in various ways. The first group of "phylloquinones" is absorbed mainly through the blood vessels, and the second - through the lymphatics. The main part of vitamin K binds to albumin and accumulates in the liver, spleen and heart. However, the blockade of the reticuloendothelial system several times reduces the absorption of the nutrient by the organs.

    Antihemorrhagic vitamin controls K - dependent factors of the blood coagulation system - prothrombin, factors VII, IX and X, proteins S, C and Z.

    Scientists have found that the vitamin K is present in the liver in three forms. At the same time, the nutrient itself does not have biological activity. The transition to the active state occurs only after the transformation of the substance into the form of hydroquinone. This reaction proceeds under the influence of quinone reductase (in liver microsomes). Then hydroquinone, in the process of carboxylation of K - dependent factors, is synthesized into an intermediate metabolite of vitamin K - epoxide. This protein, in turn,again restored to vitamin K - quinone under the influence of epoxide reductase. Thus, the known forms of the nutrient are sequentially transformed into one another, forming a closed cycle of vitamin K.

    Metabolic end products are excreted along with feces.

    Vitamin K deficiency

    Deficiency of phylloquinone and menaquinone in the body is a rare phenomenon, which in most cases occurs as a result of severe dietary restriction or due to drug interactions that reduce nutrient absorption. In a healthy person, the gut bacteria population is normally capable of synthesizing sufficient levels of vitamin K to meet the daily requirement for the beneficial compound, even without dietary sources. However, in diseases of the digestive tract, the production and absorption of the element is disrupted, as a result, hypovitaminosis develops. However, most of the symptoms are associated with disorders in the circulatory system.

    The most pronounced manifestation of K-vitamin deficiency in the human body is hemorrhagic syndrome, which develops against the background of changes in the blood coagulation system. Initially, scientists believed that bleeding was associated with a decrease in prothrombin activity. Later it was found that nutrient deficiency is not limited to hypoprothrombinemia.

    Vitamin K stimulates the biosynthesis of enzyme proteins (prothrombin, antihemophilic globulin, proconvertin, Stuart-Prauer factor) in the liver, which are involved in blood coagulation and are required for the production of active thrombin, thromboplastin.

    The sequence of manifestations of hypovitaminosis.

    1. The first stage is characterized by a decrease in the level of prothrombin (up to 35%), which, when the vessel is damaged, quickly changes its structure, forming a clot. Insufficient protein production can lead to an increase in the amount of blood loss from wounds when the skin is damaged. This symptom is called prothrombinemia.
    2. At the second stage, if vitamin K deficiency is not corrected, there is a further decrease in prothrombin (20%). This disorder (hemorrhagic syndrome) leads to the discovery of severe internal and external bleeding. The characteristic symptoms of moderate hypovitaminosis in children are bleeding from the navel, urinary tract, nose, mouth, in adults - liquid feces mixed with blood, subcutaneous bruising (bruises), hematomas in the vein puncture area, hematemesis, bleeding in the gastrointestinal tract, bleeding gums.
    3. The third stage, called "severe avitaminosis - hemorrhagic diathesis with hematuria" is a danger to human life. The patient's condition is aggravated every day, blood circulation is disturbed, peptic ulcers develop. At the same time, a personmay die from kidney, heart failure, blood poisoning or blood loss.

    Chronic lack of a vitamin compound causes cartilage ossification and osteoporosis. As a result, a person already at a young age begins to suffer from typical senile diseases.

    Without treatment for K-vitamin deficiency, 30% of sick people die from hemorrhage in the adrenal glands, liver.

    Nutrient deficiency in the body leads to the following changes in the body:

    • weakens the biosynthesis of serotonin, histamine, acetylcholine;
    • impairs the work of the tonic, rhythmic function of smooth muscles;
    • reduces the activity of amylase, intestinal alkaline phosphatase, enterokinase, pancreatic lipase, alanine aminotransferase / aspartate aminotransferase of the heart muscle, small / large intestine, stomach walls, skeletal muscle proteinase.

    Recognition of K-vitamin hypovitaminosis is based on the determination of dependent coagulation factors, in particular prothrombin. Normally, the protein level is 95-105% according to Quick, the prothrombin time is 9-12.6 seconds. A decrease or increase in the prothrombin index (PTI) indicates increased or decreased blood clotting, which occurs due to a lack of vitamin K, the formation of malignant tumors, a pre-infarction condition, problems with the liver, gastrointestinal tract, dysbacteriosis, or taking diuretics, corticosteroids, anabolics, aspirin, hormonal contraceptives, laxatives.

    Protein levels can be normalized, with treatment depending on the cause of the problem. Often, a special diet and drug therapy is required for recovery.

    Despite the ability of phyllioquinone and menaquinone to influence blood clotting, the use of these nutrients in the treatment of hemophilia (excessive tissue bleeding) is useless and will not bring the desired effect.

    The role of the nutrient for expectant mothers

    What is the risk of vitamin K deficiency for a pregnant woman?

    1. Increased risk of internal bleeding and hemorrhage.
    2. Insufficient energy production, forces.
    3. Increases wound healing time.
    4. The process of bone tissue formation in the baby worsens.
    5. Muscle contraction is weakened, the strength of the vascular walls is weakened.
    6. Gastrointestinal motor function disorders occur.

    Vitamin K helps prevent bleeding during pregnancy, during and after childbirth. Despite the fact that for the full intrauterine development of the baby, you need additionaltake vitamin E, the intake of tocopherol in large doses (over 300 micrograms per day) impairs the absorption of phylloquinone.

    Causes of deficiency in the body

    In a healthy lifestyle, vitamin K deficiency is rare, since a lot of the nutrient comes from food and is synthesized by the intestinal microflora. However, some factors disrupt the normal absorption of the substance in the body, provoking the development of K - hypovitaminosis.

    Causes of "hematopoietic" vitamin deficiency:

    • medications that reduce the body's stores of vitamin K (eg, antacids);
    • acute shortage of healthy fats in the daily menu;
    • impaired absorption of lipids by the intestinal wall;
    • pathologies of the gastrointestinal tract (chronic colitis, enteritis, neoplasms, ulcers, dyskinesia, dysbacteriosis, dysentery, helminthic invasions);
    • intake of large portions of mineral oils;
    • poisoning with third generation cephalosporins or coumarin anticoagulants;
    • violation of the production and secretion of bile against the background of drug poisoning (chloroform, phosphorus), pathologies affecting the liver parenchyma (cirrhosis, hepatitis, including viral ones, pancreatic tumors, cholelithiasis);
    • prolonged intravenous nutrition;
    • prolonged use of drugs, in particular antibiotics, that inhibit the intestinal microflora;
    • chemotherapy.

    In addition, breastfed babies are at risk of developing hypovitaminosis due to partial colonization of the intestinal flora and low concentration of the nutrient in breast milk (2, 5 micrograms per litre).

    Since vitamin K deficiency leads to a deficiency of blood coagulation factors, infants with phylloquinone deficiency may develop hemorrhagic syndrome (bleeding from the umbilical remnant, melena, metrorrhagia), and in some cases - hemorrhage in the lungs, liver, adrenal glands and brain.

    If hypovitaminosis is suspected, a biochemical blood test for prothrombin (a factor formed with the participation of vitamin K) is prescribed. A low prothrombin index (less than 50%) may indicate a lack of an antihemorrhagic nutrient in the body, serious pathologies of the digestive tract, or a risk of bleeding during childbirth. To establish an accurate anamnesis, against the background of laboratory tests, the intake of drugs that inhibit the normal absorption of "phylloquinones" is canceled. If after a vitamin injection, the content of prothrombin in the blood increased within 2-4 hours, and the bleeding stopped after 3-6hours, this indicates that K - deficiency has developed in the human body. Along with this, with a lack of a nutrient, the characteristic of blood clotting exceeds the permissible limit.

    The rate of formation of a fibrin clot after contact with a foreign surface is 3-5 minutes.

    K-hypervitaminosis

    An excess of K1 and K2 in the human body causes allergic reactions: skin redness, increased sweating.

    Hypervitaminosis usually occurs only in toddlers. This disease is accompanied by the appearance of hemolytic syndrome and is manifested by damage to the baby's blood. The introduction of large doses of vitamin K in the diet of a child (over 15 micrograms per day) can lead to the development of hyperbilirubinemia, kernicterus, hemolytic anemia.

    Phylloquinone overdose symptoms:

    • enlarged liver, spleen;
    • bone pain;
    • anemia;
    • yellowing of the whites of the eyes, skin;
    • crooked teeth;
    • skin rashes;
    • headaches;
    • itching;
    • skin peeling;
    • change in red blood cells;
    • high blood pressure;
    • occurrence of gallstones;
    • high sky position;
    • ulceration.

    Treatment of hypervitaminosis K is based on the complete withdrawal of drugs containing phylloquinone and involves the exclusion from the child's diet of foods rich in a useful compound (fruits, meat, eggs, cabbage, wheat ) until the symptoms of the disease are eliminated.

    General indications for use

    Vitamin K is used for the prevention and treatment of conditions associated with hypoprothrombinemia and hemorrhagic syndrome.

    Medical indications for the use of the nutrient:

    • pulmonary bleeding in pulmonary tuberculosis;
    • cirrhosis of the liver;
    • dysproteinemia;
    • hepatitis;
    • bleeding from radiation sickness;
    • prolonged diarrhea;
    • hemorrhagic disease in newborns;
    • last month of pregnancy (to prevent bleeding in newborns);
    • septic pathologies accompanied by hemorrhagic phenomena;
    • profuse menstrual bleeding;
    • prevention of osteoporosis;
    • ​​
    • bleeding due to surgery or injury;
    • intestinal atony;
    • obstructive jaundice;
    • bleeding associated with pathologies of the digestive tract(colitis, ulcers, diverticulum, hemorrhoids, neoplasms, hernias);
    • muscle weakness;
    • hemorrhagic diathesis;
    • increased vascular fragility;
    • uterine climacteric and juvenile bleeding;
    • postoperative rehabilitation in case of bleeding threat;
    • hemorrhages resulting from an overdose of drugs (sulfonamides, salicylates, tranquilizers, antibiotics, antiepileptic and anti-tuberculosis drugs) and "indirect" anticoagulants;
    • preparation for elective surgery (to prevent bleeding).

    In addition, vitamin K is used in the complex therapy of intestinal inflammation, arterial atherosclerosis, cystic fibrosis, kidney stones, osteoporosis, toxicosis in pregnant women, pancreatic and liver tumors.

    Contraindications:

    • drug hypersensitivity;
    • embolism, thrombosis;
    • increased blood clotting.

    With caution, vitamin K is prescribed for hypertension, allergic “tuning” of the body, in the first trimester of pregnancy, in childhood and old age.

    For therapeutic purposes, a synthetic analogue of folloquinone, Vikasol, is used.

    How to take the drug

    For oral administration, Vikasol is used in the form of tablets and powder, and for intramuscular injections - injections in ampoules (1%). Solution for parenteral administration is prepared in isotonic sodium chloride solution.

    Daily nutrient requirement for adults (when taken by mouth) is 15-30 milligrams, for children 2-15 milligrams (depending on the age of the child). At the same time, a single dose for intramuscular injection should not exceed 10-15 milligrams, the maximum daily rate is 30 milligrams.

    Each ampoule of the drug (1 milliliter) contains 10 milligrams of vitamin K.

    reception. After that, a four-day break is made and the course of treatment is repeated.

    Women in labor are given vitamin K on arrival at the maternity hospital, at a dosage of 15 to 30 milligrams (orally). If after 12 hours childbirth has not occurred, this drug is taken again. However, in the last trimester of pregnancy and during lactation, Vikasol is used with caution under the supervision of a doctor, since taking the medicine in large quantities can provoke the development of allergies in the child.

    For neonates, the therapeutic dose of the nutrient is 2 to 4 milligrams per day.

    Before surgery(for the prevention of parenchymal bleeding) an analogue of vitamin K is prescribed 2 to 3 days before surgery.

    Remember, when taken orally, the action of Vikasol appears after 14-18 hours, and when administered intramuscularly - after 5-6 hours.

    Distribution of vitamin K in nature

    The largest amount of phylloquinone is found in chloroplasts, which are found in the cells of green plants. Vegetables synthesize the vitamin through their photochemical function. At the same time, the amount of nutrient depends on the amount of chlorophyll. The largest amount of vitamin K is found in tea leaves, broccoli, leafy vegetables, green tomatoes, cabbage, and the smallest amount is found in root vegetables and fruits (bananas, kiwi, avocados).

    K2, unlike K1, is present in animal products: eggs, fish oil, liver.

    ]
    Table №1 “What foods contain vitamin K”
    ]Vitamin K content per 100 grams of product, micrograms
    Green tea leaves 964
    Liver 600
    Green cabbage 500
    Spinach 450
    Black tea leaves 345
    Pink cabbage 230
    Broccoli 210
    Red leaf lettuce 210
    Watercress salad 200
    Valerian 200
    Soybean oil 193
    Green onion 190
    Onion 160
    Lamb 150
    Veal ] 150
    Head lettuce 120
    Horseradish 108
    Beef 100
    Cod 100
    Cauliflower 80
    Seaweed 66
    Beans 45
    Kiwi 40
    Celery 30
    Zucchini 30
    Cucumbers ) 30
    Chicken egg 20
    Hot pepper 14
    Carrot 13
    Chicken 10
    Tomatoes 10
    Pear 4
    Apple 2
    Garlic 1.7
    Bananas 0.5

    Decoctions from herbs: linden, thorn sheep, nettle, birch leaves, shepherd's purse, raspberries.

    Vitamin K is well preserved after heat treatment of products, as a rule, the loss of a useful compound when exposed to high temperatures does not exceed 5%, when frozen, they reach 30%.

    Researchers have found that the plant cells of vegetables, which are rich in phylloquinone, release some of the nutrient during cooking, which leads to an increase in the amount of K1 in food. Based on laboratory data, the researchers concluded that food processing does not affect the level of vitamin K in them. Industrial processing of vegetables and fruits (for example, into juices), on the contrary, reduces the content of vitamin K by 50 - 90%. As a result, the final product is of no value to the human body.

    Complete absorption of phylloquinone and menanquinone is prevented by effervescent, alcoholic beverages, flavorings, dyes, preservatives. For normal absorption of the compound, it is necessary to ensure a systematic intake of healthy fats and exclude deep-fried food from the daily diet.

    Phylloquinone and menaquinone in cosmetics

    Vitamin K, maintaining a stable viscosity and blood circulation, strengthens the inner wall of small vessels and normalizes the condition of superficial capillaries. In view of this, the nutrient (phytonadione) is used as a cosmetic ingredient in the creation of skin care products.

    Indications for the use of vitamin cosmetics:

    • periorbital pigmentation (for lightening);
    • dark circles under the eyes;
    • broken capillaries and redness in rosacea;
    • excessive insolation (to reduce negativemanifestations of sunburn);
    • Bateman's purpura;
    • after a course of hardware procedures (laser peeling or ablation);
    • spider veins in rosacea;
    • bruises, hematomas (for resorption);
    • telangiectasias;
    • chemical peel (as final step);
    • rehabilitation period after plastic surgery (rhinoplasty, blepharo, liposuction).

    In cosmetology, products containing anti-hemorrhagic vitamin are the “highlight” of branded professional cosmetics companies.

    However, it is important to understand that vitamin K is a cosmetic ingredient, not a drug. In view of this, it is advisable to combine the “hematopoietic” element with other anti-inflammatory ingredients: green tea extract, superoxide dismutase, alpha-lipoic acid, licorice root, curcumin, tocopherols, carotenoids, plant antioxidants, vitamin C.

    In addition to these components, vitamin preparations should contain phospholipids (lecithin) and fats. However, some people do not know the name of vitamin K in cosmetics. Phytonadione on the labels of professional products is denoted by the word "phylloquinone". Moreover, the closer the substance is to the top of the list of ingredients, the more it is in the preparation.

    Consider popular vitamin K cosmetics.

    1. Bionic Eye Cream (NeoStrata) is an eye cream based on phytonadione and gluconolactone. The composition is used as an anti-age remedy to eliminate swelling and dark circles under the eyes.
    2. Vitamin K Cream (Reviva Labs)
    3. Evening Primrose Eye Cream (Korres)
    4. Amazing Cream (Aroma Naturals) - multifunctional organic face cream with vitamin K, cocoa butter and herbal extracts.

    Despite the fact that these products are intended for local use, the compositions can be used for daily care of problematic and aging skin.

    Vitamin K in dog poisoning

    Chemical intoxication in dogs, in 80% of cases, occurs when eating rat poison or a poisoned rodent. If timely action is not taken, the consequences can be irreversible. Therefore, it is important for each owner to know what happens in the dog's body when poisoned, and how to prevent death.

    What does poison do in a pet's body?

    Rat poisons (rodencitides) - anticoagulants that suppress the production of vitamin K,which, among other things, ensures blood clotting. As a result, the walls of the capillaries are damaged, and the time for the formation of a fibrin clot increases. These phenomena lead to the development of bleeding from natural openings, including bleeding into the peritoneum and the brain.

    After the poison enters the body, the pet's health remains normal for some time (until its own reserves of vitamin K run out). The typical period of development of clinical symptoms of intoxication (in adults) is 3-5 days from the moment of rodenticide poisoning.

    Signs of poisoning:

    • foamy vomiting with inclusions of blood and bile;
    • lethargy;
    • shortness of breath;
    • high temperature (39 - 40 degrees);
    • discoloration of urine;
    • bloody diarrhea;
    • convulsions;
    • loss of appetite;
    • salivation;
    • photophobia;
    • pallor of mucous membranes;
    • bleeding from the rectum;
    • tachycardia.

    In severe intoxication, prolonged convulsions may occur, which are not relieved by anticonvulsants.

    First aid in case of dog poisoning (until the doctor arrives)

    1. Give the animal an adsorbent (enterosgel, activated charcoal, polypefam, sorbex). If the pet is in a coma and cannot swallow, then these events are canceled.
    2. Purify the digestive tract by inducing vomiting and applying an enema. If more than 4 hours have passed after eating the poison, then it is better to refuse the first washing method, since the food lump has already passed into the intestines.
    3. Give an injection of vitamin K1, after specifying the dosage with a veterinarian by phone. In case of poisoning with "strong" anticoagulants (bromadiolone, ratsid, brodifacoum, flocumafenm), a single dose of an antidote for dogs is 2.5 - 5 milligrams per kilogram of animal weight (injected subcutaneously). If poisoning with a first-generation rodenticide (warfarin, triphenacin, isopropylphenacin, ethylphenacin) is detected, then the dosage is reduced to 0.25 - 2.5 milligrams.
    4. Drink water or mucous decoctions (hercules, linseed, rice). At the same time, it is forbidden to feed the animal with milk, castor oil, eggs and vegetable oil, due to increased absorption of toxins into the blood. After stabilization of the condition, vitamin K1 (in tablets) is added to the animal for 1-6 weeks. The duration of rehabilitation therapy depends on the condition of the pet and the chemical variety of the poison.

    Medicines used as antidotes for poisoning

    1. Konakion, Mephiton, Konavit, Monodion -"human" preparations of vitamin K1 used to treat dogs in order to restore blood clotting factors.
    2. Veta - K1, Aqua - Mephyton, Mephyton, Veda - K1 - veterinary drugs in capsules, tablets and ampoules for the treatment of bleeding in pets.
    3. Unitol is a drug used to treat animals with acute and chronic poisoning with mercury compounds, copper, arsenic, silver, antimony, chromium, bismuth.
    4. Atropine is a tropane alkaloid prescribed for poisoning with nerve agents, carbamate and organophosphate insecticides.

    These drugs are used as antidotes for dogs poisoned by rat poison. In this case, the type of drug depends on the chemical structure of the toxic compound and the severity of the pathology.

    Remember, if your pet is poisoned, it is important to immediately contact a veterinary clinic to prevent possible complications.

    Use for uterine bleeding

    Uterine bleeding is a common problem in women of "reproductive" age. The normal duration of the menstrual cycle is 5-7 days, and the total amount of discharge is 60-80 milliliters. If any disease develops in the urinary organs, a woman may begin uterine bleeding. Today, uterine bleeding is eliminated with the help of therapeutic agents or surgical intervention in the form of curettage of the uterine cavity. However, in most cases, they manage with standard hemostatic therapy using vitamin K preparations. In gynecological practice, in 80% of cases, a synthetic analogue of "phyllaquinones" - Vikasol is used. This drug is used as an "express" means to stop bleeding with excessive bleeding during menstruation. In this case, the optimal form of release of the substance is a solution for injection. A single therapeutic dose for intramuscular injection is 10-15 milligrams. The maximum allowable portion of the substance is 30 milligrams per day.

    Vitamin K3 injections help to relax the uterus and reduce the strength of muscle spasms, which reduces the feeling of discomfort in the lower abdomen and reduces the need for pain medication (in women aged 13 to 25 years). However, it is important to understand that Vikasol will not stop bleeding immediately, since it only begins to "work" effectively after 18 hours.

    Along with this, phyllaquinone is of great importance in postmenopausal women, as it potentiates the production of sex hormones in the body. To reduce the abundance of secretions, vitamin K (in tablets) is taken 7 days before the startmenses. A single serving of the substance is 3 milligrams, and a daily dose is 6 milligrams. However, remember that it is important to use vitamin K preparations only under the supervision of a doctor.

    What threatens the uncontrolled use of Vikasol?

    1. The development of liver or kidney failure.
    2. The occurrence of allergic reactions.
    3. Incomplete emptying of the uterus from exfoliated endometrium.
    4. Formation of blood clots.
    5. Progression of varicose veins.

    Remember, self-regulation of the menstrual cycle with Vikasol is fraught with the development of hormonal failure in the body.

    Interaction with other substances

    The mechanism of action of vitamin K is its participation in the processes of modification of proteins of the blood and bone tissue coagulation system. However, some substances inhibit the absorption of the nutrient in the intestine, as a result of which the full course of biochemical reactions is disrupted.

    Consider what prevents the absorption of "phylloquinones" and how vitamin K is compatible with some compounds.

    1. Daily intake of significant portions of tocopherol (more than 2200 IU) leads to a decrease in the absorption of "hematopoietic" factor in the intestine.
    2. Calcium-rich preparations inhibit the synthesis and absorption of vitamin K, and in some cases provoke the development of internal bleeding.
    3. Phylloquinone prevents hemorrhagic phenomena that occur when high doses of beta-carotene are administered.
    4. Preparations containing vitamin K increase the negative effect of X-rays on mitosis in fibroblast tissue culture.
    5. Synthetic vitamin A (retinol-acetate) inhibits intestinal absorption of the antihemorrhagic substance.
    6. The "hematopoietic" nutrient enhances the pharmacological properties of steroid hormones.
    7. Vitamin K inhibits the reproduction of pathogenic microflora in the stomach and intestines (mycobacteria, staphylococci, streptococci, corynobacteria).
    8. Indirect anticoagulants, antibiotics and sulfonamides interfere with the endogenous synthesis of vitamin K.
    9. Tetracycline accelerates the excretion of the nutrient from the body.
    10. Under the influence of alcohol, fizzy drinks, barbiturates, preservatives, flavors and dyes, the concentration of vitamin K in the body is halved.
    11. Fatty foods promote the absorption of fat-soluble forms of phylloquinones.
    12. Sesamin preparations increase the half-life of vitamin K metabolites in the body (MK-4 and phylloquinone).

    The above nutrient compatibility data is important to consider whenformulating a drug regimen.

    conclusion

    blood vessels and brain at the proper level. In addition, phylloquinone and menaquinone protect nerve cells from oxidative damage, regulate the course of inflammatory reactions. So, with a sufficient amount of vitamin K in the body, the release of interleukin-6 decreases.

    Today, in the UK, Canada and the US, newborns are given prophylactic injections of phylloquinone and menanquinone, which prevent bleeding, particularly in the brain.