Vitamins for athletes

Vitamins for athletes - nutrients that support muscle tissue growth, increase the "efficiency" of training, shorten the recovery period after intense exercise, slow down the development of pain in the muscles, reduce anxiety during competition. In addition, they prevent the occurrence of hormonal dysfunctions, improve blood circulation in the brain, activate the synthesis of enzymes and neurotransmitters.

Consider the main nutrients that are important for athletes to drink, their functions, popular vitamin complexes.

Essential vitamins for athletes

Vitamins play a primary role in maintaining all biochemical reactions in the human body. Given that under the influence of physical activity, the metabolism accelerates, it is important for athletes to consume an increased amount of essential substances.

Nutrient list for professional athletes:

  1. Vitamin C (L-ascorbic acid, calcium ascorbate). The main "regulator" of metabolism, without which the full synthesis of steroid hormones is impossible. Organic vitamin C increases the absorption of protein structures, accelerates the production of collagen, regulates redox reactions, maintains the athlete's high performance, and reduces the rehabilitation period after intense exercise. In addition, the substance "delivers" oxygen to cells, preventing their destruction and transformation into fat.

It is important to consume at least 2000 milligrams of L-ascorbate per day (250 milligrams 8 times a day) during increased physical exertion. During the competition, a single dose of the nutrient is increased to 350 milligrams.

Food sources - sauerkraut, cranberries, infusion rose hips, parsley.

  1. Vitamin A (retinol, beta-carotene, retinyl). Participates in the processes of deposition of glycogen (the main source of energy), improves the utilization of protein structures, accelerates the regeneration of damaged tissues, increases muscle volume and density, stimulates collagen synthesis, and regulates photoreception processes (light, twilight and color vision).

The daily value for athletes ranges from 5 to 7 milligrams.

The main suppliers of the nutrient are sour cream (homemade), yellow fruits and vegetables, eggs, fish oil.

  1. Vitamin E (tocotrienol, tocopherol). It protects cell membranes from destruction, increases the endurance of an athlete (during grueling workouts), stimulates the synthesis of sex hormones (estrogens, testosterone), and accelerates the growth of relief muscles.

To improve athletic performance, take 70-100 milligrams of tocopherol per day (courses).

Food sources - fruits ( avocado, apricot, peach), nuts ( walnuts, almonds, hazelnuts, peanuts ), berries (sea buckthorn, raspberry, strawberry, blackberry), vegetable oils (linseed, camelina, cedar, olive, sesame ),

  1. Vitamin B1 (thiamine). The main substance for "pumping" muscles and increasing the "performance" of training. Thiamine improves the metabolism of amino acids, stimulates the production of thyroid hormones, and participates in the functioning of the nervous system.

The daily requirement for thiamine varies in the range of 10-15 milligrams (for athletes).

The nutrient is found in the shell of grains of cereals, peanuts, walnuts, beans.

  1. Vitamin B2 (riboflavin). Regulates protein metabolism, accelerates the metabolism of glucose, stimulates energy production, participates in the absorption of hydrogen. This element is especially necessary for heavyweight athletes, since strength training intensively “burns” it.

During competition periods, consume 10 to 20 milligrams of the vitamin.

Riboflavin is a part of fermented milk products ( cottage cheese, cheese, kefir ), unpolished cereals ( oatmeal, buckwheat, rice ), eggs, nuts (almonds, walnuts), vegetables (tomatoes, cabbage, turnips).

  1. Vitamin B3 (niacin). Accelerates the "delivery" of energy to the muscles (during training), participates in the formation of hormones (estrogens, testosterone, cortisone, insulin), normalizes blood glucose levels, eliminates spasms of blood vessels (reducing the risk of thrombosis).

Consume at least 30 milligrams of niacin per day during periods of intense exercise.

However, it is important not to overdo it with the intake of the substance, since its excess blocks the burning of subcutaneous fat.

Natural sources - mushrooms ( boletus, aspen mushrooms), peanuts (unroasted), natural coffee, spices (coriander, fennel, turmeric, nutmeg, oregano).

  1. Vitamin B4 (choline). Constituent component of lecithin. Dissolves cholesterol on the walls of blood vessels, improves cognitive functions of the brain (due to the restoration of myelin sheaths of neurons), reduces nervous tension during competitions, and normalizes lipid synthesis.

The daily dose for athletes is 1-3 milligrams.

The substance is found in egg yolks (soft-boiled), dates, cottage cheese (fatty).

  1. Vitamin B6 (pyridoxine). An indispensable nutrient for athletes, as it is involved in the processes of muscle hypertrophy, protein utilization, amino acid synthesis, the formation of hormones and neurotransmitters.

The daily allowance is 20 milligrams of the element per day.

Pyridoxine is found in eggs, seafood, avocados, brown rice, whole grain bread, walnuts, flattened oats.

  1. Vitamin B7 (biotin). Participates in the metabolism of protein structures, "controls" the absorption of fatty acids, accelerates the transformation of glucose into energy.

To maintain fitness, consume 0.5 milligrams of biotin per day. With a lack of a substance in the body, the growth of muscle tissue slows down.

The substance is found in potatoes, chicken yolk, cabbage, beans, nuts, cereals.

  1. Vitamin B12 (cyanocobalamin). It improves the conduction of nerve impulses to muscle tissue, regulates carbohydrate and protein metabolism, and participates in the synthesis of nerve fibers in the spinal cord.

Cobalamin requirements range from 0.003 to 0.02 milligrams per day. With a deficiency of a substance in the body, an athlete has chronic fatigue, deterioration in muscle response, and disorders of the nervous system.

Natural sources of the nutrient: dairy products, fish, eggs, whole grains.

To improve athletic performance, amino acid mixtures are introduced into the athlete's diet. They not only increase endurance, but also accelerate the set of muscle mass. This is what explains the cravings of "jocks" for a protein diet.

Amino acids for athletes

In addition to vitamin supplements, amino acid complexes are used to accelerate the delivery of “building material” to the muscles. These substances are used as an "express" agent for instant replenishment of protein concentration in tissues. This “effect” is explained by the rapid absorption (in 10-15 minutes) of amino acids into the blood (unlike protein shakes, which “take” 2 hours to digest).

Essential amino acids for an athlete:

  1. Leucine. It supplies energy to cells, strengthens bone tissue, prevents the destruction of protein structures, and participates in the regeneration of muscle fibers.
  2. Arginine. Stimulates the processing of adipose tissue into energy, improves blood flow to the muscles (pumping effect), speeds up metabolism, participates in the production of sex hormones, reduces pain in the muscles, increases psychological endurance.
  3. Isoleucine. Reduces the intensity of destruction of muscle tissue (during training), prolongs physical endurance, controls the level of sugar in the blood, improves mental state, reduces anxiety during competitions.
  4. Valine. Accelerates the recovery of muscle tissue, improves coordination of movements, stimulates the production of collagen, increases the endurance of the athlete.
  5. Taurine. It strengthens the nervous system, maintains visual acuity, reduces the intensity of muscle breakdown after training, accelerates protein absorption, improves heart function, and prevents the transformation of protein into adipose tissue.
  6. Histidine. Stimulates the growth of relief muscles, accelerates the formation of white and red blood cells, reduces the risk of muscle anemia, reduces the intensity of destruction of soft fibers (during training).
  7. Phenylalanine. Increases the regeneration of connective tissue (including tendons and ligaments), stimulates the production of collagen, participates in the synthesis of norepinerphin (a hormone that transmits signals to the brain).
  8. Glutamine. Improves the mental state of the athlete, stimulates protein metabolism, strengthens the immune system.

Remember, it is a good idea to discuss your amino acid formula with a dietitian.

Vitamin complexes on the "guard" of health

During strength training, the need for proteins, vitamins and minerals increases at least 2 times. Given that over the past half century, the concentration of nutrients in food has dropped dramatically (by 10 times), it is advisable to additionally take sports complexes to replenish the substances “burned” during exercise.

TOP-5 drugs for athletes:

  1. Multi Pro Plus (Scitec Nutrition, USA). One of the best sports complexes aimed at stimulating protein synthesis. The drug helps to restore muscle tissue after training, slow down catabolic processes in the muscles, improve oxygen delivery to tissues, stabilize the mental state, and “draw” the relief of the body.

"Multi Pro Plus" consists of 14 vitamins (B1, B2, PP, B4, B5, B6, H, B8, B9, B12, A, E, D, C), 10 micro- and macronutrients ( calcium, magnesium, iron, copper, iodine, zinc, manganese ], selenium, molybdenum ), 4 flavonoids (hesperedin, lutein, rutin, coenzyme Q10), 2 polyunsaturated fatty acids ( eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic), 1 plant adaptogen (grapefruit seeds).

YThe supplement is taken once a day (maximum twice) one packet after meals.

  1. Animal Pak (Universal Nutrition, USA). The richest multicomponent composition aimed at increasing the endurance of an athlete, reducing muscle pain, building relief muscles.

Active components of the composition - vitamins (A, D, C, E, B1, B2, B3, B5, H, B6, B9, B12), micro and macro elements ( phosphorus, calcium, iodine, magnesium, zinc, manganese, copper, selenium, potassium, chromium ), amino acids ( cysteine ​​, arginine, glutamine, alanine, glycine, aspartic acid, histidine, glutamic acid, proline, serine, tryptophan, phenylalanine, threonine, valine, tyrosine ). In addition, the supplement contains plant anabolics, natural hepatoprotectors, bioflavonoids, and digestive enzymes.

Vitamin-mineral complex is taken in a single dose (11 tablets) 30-40 minutes before intense sports (30-40 minutes).

  1. “Dr. Feel Good" (San, USA). Saturated complex to neutralize oxidative stress (cell damage), increase muscle tissue, improve blood circulation in the brain, shorten the rehabilitation period after exercise, improve immune status.

Supplement contains 14 vitamins (C, D, A, E, H, PP, B1, B2, B5, B6, B9, B12), 10 minerals (potassium, molybdenum, calcium, iodine, manganese, zinc, selenium, copper, chromium, boron ), 9 plant extracts (green tea, milk thistle, schizander, grapefruit seeds, cordyceps, gotu- cola, bacopa monnieri, rhodiola, ginkgo biloba), 3 amino acids (glycine, histidine, tyrosine).

The drug is consumed once a day, 4-8 tablets (with meals).

  1. Extreme sports nutrition (Now Foods, USA). Organic phytocomplex to stimulate the growth of muscle tissue, improve thyroid function, increase the effectiveness of training, maintain adequate thermogenesis.

The supplement includes a full range of essential substances for the athlete: B vitamins (B1, B2, B3, B5, B6, B9, B12), micro and macro elements (magnesium, iodine, chromium), a mixture of herbal adaptogens (guarana, green tea, rhodiola, eleutherococcus, ginseng, mate), amino acids (tyrosine, carnitine, taurine, citrulline), flavonoids (coenzyme Q10).

Take 2 capsules daily after breakfast.

  1. Sports vitamin-amino acid complex (Gaspari Nutrition, USA). The drug is used to accelerate muscle recovery after exercise, increase training performance (especially in extreme sports), strengthen bone tissue, improve brain function, enhance the transformation of fat into muscle tissue.
  2. ​​

The supplement contains the following substances: vitamins (A, K, C, D, E, B1, B2, PP, B4, B5, H, B9, B12), minerals (magnesium, calcium, phosphorus, iodine, zinc, selenium, copper, manganese, chromium, molybdenum, potassium, boron), amino acids (alanine, carnitine).

The drug is taken 3 times a day, 1 serving (3 tablets) with meals.

Remember, the beneficial properties of vitamin complexes are fully revealed only if there is a sufficient amount of water in the body.

During intensive sports, an athlete loses up to 3 liters of moisture with sweat, which must be compensated. Otherwise, internal organs and systems will suffer. The daily norm of water for an athlete is 3 - 3.5 liters.

How to eat to build muscle?

Remember, muscle tissue grows only when the energy expended is fully compensated, so in addition to hard training, it is important to carefully plan your daily diet.

Consider the five main rules of nutrition :

  1. Meeting the daily requirement for protein. To create a beautiful embossed body, muscles need a building material - protein. The optimal daily dose of protein is 2 grams per 1 kilogram of an athlete's body weight.

Natural sources: dairy products, eggs, greens, fish, meat, beans. Protein "does not work" without regular strength training. Therefore, along with an increase in the daily portion of protein, it is important to increase the intensity of sports activities.

  1. Frequent meals. To “pump” the muscles, it is important to eat often, but little by little (5-6 times a day). At the same time, it is better to give preference to simple “vitamin” dishes: boiled fish, vegetable salads, steamed cereals, green smoothies, cottage cheese desserts, fruit and berry mousses, sour-milk drinks, raw nuts.
  2. Nutrition before training. A prerequisite for creating relief muscles is the intake of carbohydrate-protein food 2 hours before sports.

If you train on an empty stomach, the intensity of power loads is reduced by a factor of three (due to lack of energy resources).

The optimal nutritional value of a “pre-workout” diet is 200 to 300 kilocalories. Moreover, it should account for 70 - 80% of slow carbohydrates (to fill glycogen depots) and 20% of proteins (to enhance anabolic processes in the body). In addition, it is important to include foods containing B vitamins in the athlete's menu: cereals (brown rice, buckwheat, millet ), seeds, nuts, herbs, fruits, rye bread.

  1. Eating after exercise. Considering that when playing sports, nutrients (amino acids, glucose, vitamins, micro- and macroelements) are intensively consumed, after strength exercises it is important to replenish energy reserves (after 30-60 minutes). For this, green cocktails, fruit-kefir mousses, berry-curd desserts, and nut mixtures are suitable.
  2. Protein and carbohydrate supplementation. To build voluminous "inflated" muscles, it is advisable to use protein mixtures and gainers. The first cocktails supply the body with amino acids (“building material” for muscle growth), the second - with carbohydrates (transformed into energy resources).

Avoid high protein intake as it affects hormones.

The “correct” increase in muscle tissue is 600 grams per week. In the case of a smaller weight gain, the calorie content of the diet is increased, with a greater weight gain, the energy value of the menu is reduced.

Myths about sports nutrition

Today, the pharmaceutical industry produces a wide range of supplements for athletes. At the same time, the results of the competition (including indicators of muscle mass) depend on the correct combination of vitamins, carbohydrates and proteins.

Consider common myths about sports nutrition.

Myth No. 1 “In order to build muscle, it is important to consume as much protein as possible”

The most common misconception. It is important for athletes to take no more than 2 grams of protein per kilogram of body weight per day (15 - 35% of total calories consumed). Exceeding the protein norm is permissible only if physical activity is added. Otherwise, there is an increase in the concentration of homocysteine ​​in the blood, and, as a result, damage to the inner wall of blood vessels. At the same time, energy exchange between tissue and blood is disturbed in loosened cells, atherosclerotic changes occur, and in severe cases, thrombosis develops.

Myth #2 “Vitamin supplements “overload” the digestive tract, causing disorders”

It is important for novice athletes to understand that sports complexes are not an alternative to the main meal, and specialized dietary supplements.

Considering that the share of such food is no more than 30% of the daily menu, with regular training and adherence to the drinking regime, there are no problems with digestion.

Myth #3 “Protein supplements are important for bodybuilders, other athletes do not need them”

This myth is based on the opinion that very little protein is required to maintain muscle tone. It's a delusion. When practicing any kind of sports, intensive destruction of muscle tissue occurs (due to the rupture of soft fibers). To repair damaged muscles, you need more protein (150 - 200 grams per day). Therefore, in order to maintain a toned, sculpted body, it is important for any athlete to regularly take amino acid supplements.

Myth #4 “Three times a meal is enough to saturate the body with nutrients”

This is not true.

The energy requirement for an athlete (weighing 65-70 kilograms) is 4000-5000 kilocalories per day.

If you stick to three meals a day, then you need to eat too large portions at one meal. This leads to a slowdown in the digestion of food, and, as a result, the development of digestive dysfunctions. In addition, with long breaks between meals, excess undigested protein is transformed into adipose tissue.

Myth #5 “Fats are bad for the body”

A dangerous misconception, because the human body needs certain types of lipids. The most important fats for an athlete are polyunsaturated acids Omega-3. They stimulate the synthesis of enzymes and hormones (including anabolic ones), "control" lipid metabolism, improve glucose resistance, accelerate the regeneration of muscle tissue, and strengthen the immune system. Given that Omega-3s are not produced by the human body, for a full-fledged metabolism, these fats must always be present in the athlete's menu.

Natural sources of essential lipids: vegetable oils (camelin, linseed, olive), fatty fish ( salmon, halibut, trout, smelt, herring ), ground seeds (flax).

Conclusion

Vitamins "for sports" are an integral part of the athlete's daily diet. They accelerate the metabolic processes in the body, increase the performance of training, shorten the rehabilitation period after exercise, stimulate the growth of muscle tissue, and prevent the development of hormonal dysfunctions.

To keep fit, it is important for a “strongman” to consume at least 2 grams of protein per day, observe a drinking regimen (at least 40 milliliters per kilogram of body weight), and choose the right training loads, taking into account individual body features.

To compensate for the deficiency of essential substances, complex bioadditives are taken, which include: vitamins (B1, B2, PP, A, B4, B5, E, H, B8, B9, B12, C, D), micro and macro elements (magnesium, calcium, iodine, zinc, selenium, chromium, copper, potassium), amino acids (leucine, taurine, arginine, valine, isoleucine).

Remember, to pump up a lean body, it is important to eat 5-6 times a day, meet the daily need for protein, water, eat 2 hours before training and 1 hour after sports, use protein supplements and gainers, observe the regimen of classes and rest. Only an integrated approach will help achieve the desired result!