Vitamins for children are useful substances necessary for the full formation and development of the child's body.
They are responsible for the health of internal organs, well-coordinated work of the endocrine and nervous systems, and regulate metabolism.
If the child's body lacks vitamins, it begins to function in an enhanced mode. Rapid fatigue, leg cramps, headaches occur, memory deteriorates, developmental delay occurs (mental or physical retardation).
Remember, in childhood and adolescence, vitamins are needed in greater quantities than for an adult, because during this period there is an intensive development of the body. The key to health is proper nutrition, however, due to poor ecology, the nutrient content in foods has dropped dramatically. Interestingly, over the past thirty years, the amount of organic vitamin C in plants has decreased by 90%. And children, in addition to everything, are subject to stress, stress, and are selective in food. As a result, the body systematically receives less nutrients, deviations in development begin.
Why is vitamin deficiency dangerous?
At the age of active development, most children visit public places (kindergartens, theaters, cinemas, parks), the social life of the child expands, which leads to a sharp increase in the risk of contracting an acute respiratory infection. This is where the question of the need for additional use of vitamin-mineral complexes to increase immunity becomes relevant.
During the period of “restructuring” of the child’s body, nutrient deficiency leads to the following problems:
- deterioration of memory, appetite;
- hormonal imbalance;
- sleep disturbance;
- slow growth, development;
- apathy, outbursts of irritability, nervousness;
- frequent infectious diseases;
- loose teeth, bleeding gums;
- slow wound healing;
- pale skin;
- brittle nails, hair;
- dry skin;
- chronic fatigue;
- anemia, weakness;
- the formation of ulcers on the tongue, cracks in the corners of the mouth;
- photosensitivity of the eyes.
As a result, the child becomes lethargic, irritable, eats and sleeps poorly. To eliminate these consequences, parents are advised to enrich the child's diet with fresh fruits, vegetables, herbs, nuts, cereals and regularly carry out vitamin therapy for preventive purposes in the spring and autumn.
Vitamins are divided into the following groups:
- Monocomponent, contain one type of organic connections. These include ascorbic acid, vitamins A, E, K, D.
- Multicomponent, they are a symbiosis of nutrients. The composition of multivitamins includes from two to ten substances. Popular drugs: Multi-Tabs, Vitaron, Biovital, Alphabet.
- Vitamin-mineral complexes. The composition of such preparations includes macro- and microelements. They are more balanced than mono and multicomponent vitamins. Due to the presence of minerals, these complexes have a much wider spectrum of action: they support visual functions, strengthen bones, teeth, improve memory, and boost immunity. The best of them: Pikovit Omega-3, Alphabet, Multi-tabs, VitaMishka calcium +, Biovital Gel.
Formulations of vitamins for children:
- chewable lozenges;
- marmalade figurines;
- effervescent tablets.
To make children's preparations taste good and attract the attention of babies, dyes and flavors are added to them. Before buying, make sure that the selected complex is suitable for the age of the child. It is recommended to give preference to vitamin products with precise dosage (lozenges, lozenges, figurines). Do not give children under one year of age drugs that require precise dose measurements (syrups, gels), as this may put the child at risk of overdose.
The main vitamins for a child
Interestingly, most nutrients, when ingested in a child's body, perform functions that do not occur in the body of an adult after taking the complex. They contribute to the biological processes of growth, the separation of tissues and internal organs according to their destinations.
Consider a list of the main ones:
- Vitamin A. It synthesizes proteins, participates in the formation of the skeleton and normal vision in a child, participates in the development of the lungs, digestive tract, and regeneration of mucous membranes. 1/3 of the daily requirement of beta-carotene should be eggs, sour-milk drinks, butter, cream, and 2/3 - products of plant origin (tomatoes, carrots, apricots, sweet peppers).
- Vitamin B1. Supports mental activity, the normal course of carbohydrate metabolism in the body, improves the absorption of nutrients from food. Sources of thiamine: nuts, buckwheat, corn, potatoes, beans.
- Vitamin B2. Responsible for the good condition of the skin, nails, hair, supports the growth of children. Foods rich in riboflavin: fish, cheese, milk, chicken.
- Vitamin B6. It regulates the functioning of the nervous system, is needed to improve memory, the formation of red blood cells, and the development of the child's immunity. Pyridoxine is present in offal, green peppers, cabbage, beef, eggs.
- Vitamin B9. Maintains the skin in good condition, prevents anemia. Sick children are especially in need of folic acid, which should be given for appetite. Natural sources: mushrooms, onions, carrots, parsley, liver.
- Vitamin B12. Participates in hematopoiesis, activates the nervous system of the baby. Cyanocobalamin is found in seafood, soy, eggs, cheese, chicken.
- Vitamin C. Protects the child from bacteria, viruses, inhibits the development of allergic reactions, strengthens blood vessels, neutralizes the action of free radicals. Ascorbic acid is found in citrus fruits, rose hips, sea buckthorn, strawberries, mountain ash.
- Vitamin D. Regulates the amount of calcium, magnesium in the child's body. Necessary for the full development of the skeleton. It enters the body with milk, butter, liver of animals or fish, eggs.
- Vitamin E. Increases the body's defenses and stabilizes the work of the circulatory, muscular, nervous systems. Tocopherol fights free radicals, supports the sexual development of adolescents. Tocopherol is found in lettuce, eggs, seeds, linseed, sesame oils.
- Vitamin PP. Regulates metabolism and ensures the absorption of all the necessary components of food: minerals, fats, proteins, carbohydrates. In addition, nicotinic acid converts glucose and triglycerides into energy, which promotes tissue growth in the child. Sources of the compound: peanuts, pine nuts, peas, squid.
- Vitamin H. Supports skin health. Foods rich in biotin: corn, pistachios, oatmeal, barley groats.
- Vitamin K. Participates in the work of the circulatory system. Menadione is found in cauliflower, onions, broccoli.
- Iron. It supplies the internal organs of the child with oxygen, participates in hematopoiesis, the formation of hemoglobin. It is recommended for admission to children from 1 year old and according to indications earlier. Foods containing iron: green vegetables, rabbit meat, turkey.
- Zinc. Accelerates wound healing, maintains visual acuity, participates in the formation of the baby's bones, strengthens the immune system, releases vitamin A. The trace element is present in legumes, nuts, and seafood. Most of all, the child's body needs zinc from two to three years.
- Calcium. Participates in metabolic processes, serves as the basis of bone tissue, is needed for the growth and functioning of nerve cells. Contained in dairy products, rose hips, hazelnuts, sesame, poppy.
- Phosphorus. Acts as an "energy carrier" - delivers energy to the cells. Together with calcium, it maintains bone strength. Natural sources of phosphorus: milk, seafood, dry yeast, cottage cheese.
- Magnesium. Participates in the transmission of nerve impulses, has an anti-stress effect. The trace element eliminates irritability, hysteria, restless sleep in a child. Natural sources of magnesium: buckwheat, soy, bran, pumpkin seeds.
Calcium, phosphorus and magnesium are recommended for children 3 years of age and older.
Thus, these are the main vitamins and macro-, microelements necessary for the growing body of the baby. The daily requirement of each nutrient depends on the age of the child. The easiest way to supply the child's body with vitamins and minerals is with the help of children's multivitamin complexes. Do not forget about the need to organize good nutrition: enrich it with fresh vegetables, fruits, herbs and lactic acid products.
Vitamin-mineral complexes for children
Consider which nutrients to give preference to at different ages:
- lactation period. Remember, during breastfeeding, nutrients are better absorbed by the baby's body in the composition of mother's milk. Therefore, during this period, a woman should use the following drugs: Vitrum Prenatal, Biovital, Alphabet Mom's Health. In addition, enrich the diet with fresh food, drink natural juices (not store-bought). This is the best way to get the missing vitamins and minerals for newborns.
- From 1 year to 2 years. During this period, it is recommended to limit the intake of vitamin D (Aquadetrim, Vigantol) to prevent the development of rickets. In addition, to enhance the resistance of the child's body to colds, enter ascorbic acid, beta-carotene. For example, the Multi-Tabs Baby complex, Vitoron or Kinder Biovital gel. While taking vitamin and mineral complexes, monitor the reaction of the child's body. If adverse reactions occur (irritability, skin rash), the drug is stopped and contacted by a pediatrician.
- From 2 years to 5 years. During this period, the child's intensive growth takes place, the skeletal system is actively formed. At this age, it is important to monitor the regular intake of iron, zinc, folic acid, vitamins A, E, C, calcium, magnesium, phosphorus in the baby's body. The balance of these nutrients ensures the formation of healthy teeth and a strong skeletal system. Recommended vitamin and mineral complexes for babies from two to five years old: Centrum for children (extravitamin C or extracalcium), Pangeksavit, Unikap Yu, Alvitil, Pikovit. From the age of 4, the Multi-Tabs Baby is administered, which is an extended version of the Multi-Tabs Baby. It contains chromium, iodine, zinc, selenium, vitamins A, C, D, E, B.
- From 5 years to 7 years. This is the period of preparation for school, during which the child is subjected to increased physical and mental stress. In addition, there is an increased growth of the body, posture is formed. At this stage of child development, zinc, iodine, B vitamins are needed. They improve concentration, motor skills and memory of the child. At the age of 6, the baby goes to school, encounters pathogenic microorganisms, often suffers from infectious diseases (ARI, rubella, chickenpox, scarlet fever). Due to the age-related immaturity of the immune system, the child is sensitive to the effects of toxins formed under the influence of disease-causing agents. Accumulating in the child's body, they become a "time bomb", inhibit the formation of protective forces, cause chronic diseases. What are the best vitamins to take in this period? Vitrum Plus, Alphabet, Multi-Tabs Classic, Centrum Children's Pro. To protect the body from viral, bacterial infections, it is recommended to drink Oligogal-Se or Triovit for six months.
- From 8 years to 10 years. This period is associated with the active growth of the body, an unusual daily routine, the change of milk teeth, and the complex rhythm of life. The child's body needs an increased amount of copper, zinc, phosphorus, ascorbic acid, vitamins A, B, E, PP, D3. Compensating for the lack of nutrients in the child's body, you can protect the child from violations of physical, psycho-emotional development. From the age of 8, you can give the following drugs: Vitrum Junior, Pikovit Omega3, Alphabet “Schoolboy”. For rapid growth of organs and tissues, increase the amount of protein in the child's diet. A complete diet with essential minerals and vitamins will ensure the correct physiological metabolism and the successful completion of the formation of the endocrine system.
- 11 years old. It is characterized by a disorder of the emotional background in schoolchildren. To maintain a child's mental balance, doctors recommend taking Pikovit brand drugs or B vitamins.
- From 12 to 18 years of age. This is a time of intensive human growth and puberty. For this period, “transitional age” “drops out”, passing exams, entering universities, which are accompanied by excessive mental stress, stressful situations. To maintain health, adolescents are recommended to take nutrients A, C, E, PP and group B. They are part of the following complexes: Sana-Sol, Complivit, Duovita, Biovital and Multivita Plus. At the age of 14, schoolchildren join sports sections, as a result, the body of boys and girls is subjected to a double load: it supplies cells with energy for intensive growth and covers the costs of maintaining an active lifestyle. Therefore, include in the diet of a teenager good complex vitamins: Complivit-active, Unicap M, Complivit, Duovit, Metabalance 44, Alphabet Teenager.
At any age, a child is detrimental to deficiency and excess of nutrients in the body. Remember, pharmacy vitamins are taken 1-2 times a year for 3-4 weeks. When looking for a drug, do not focus solely on artificial additives. Food should remain the main source of vitamins for children of all ages.
Principles of selection and administration
Multivitamin supplements for growing organisms must meet the following requirements:
- strengthen protective functions;
- adapt the body to increased physical, emotional stress;
- be hypoallergenic;
- no artificial colors, preservatives;
- improve intellectual development.
It is recommended to opt for drugs from pharmaceutical companies that have proven themselves and have positive reviews. To protect your child from fakes, do not buy vitamin and mineral complexes from your hands, on the Internet, outside pharmacies, as their quality and composition are in doubt.
How should children take vitamins?
When first taking nutrients, monitor the child's condition, as new drugs, like foods, can cause allergies.
After purchase, store sweets, lozenges or syrup in a dark place out of the reach of children (on the top shelf of a kitchen cabinet). They must be strictly dosed, in accordance with the instructions or the appointment of a pediatrician, by adults.
The most favorable period for saturating the growing body with nutrients is May-June and September-October. It is not reasonable to start taking vitamin complexes during the summer heat, the height of the cold season.
Drugs are used in courses for two to three weeks with a three-month break. It is advisable to take them with food in the morning, when energy consumption is maximum, and the body is in a state of wakefulness and can absorb nutrients well.
In the summer, give up tableted vitamins in favor of natural sources of nutrients (vegetables, fruits, herbs). To strengthen the immune system, it is recommended to combine the reception of complexes with sports and hardening procedures.
Vitamins for children are nutrients that are involved in the full formation and development of the child.
Each age has its own combination of essential nutrients. For babies, those vitamins and minerals that are found in breast milk are enough. Preschool children need compounds A, C, D, E, B, zinc. And teenagers need PP, D3, omega-3, calcium, phosphorus, iron.
Hypervitaminosis is no less dangerous than beriberi, so consult your pediatrician before taking the complex.
Remember, you will not be able to stock up on water-soluble vitamins (B, C, H), since they do not accumulate in the body, their excess is excreted in the urine. “In reserve” only fat-soluble nutrients (A, D, E) can accumulate, but their overdose can cause intoxication of the body.