Diabetes vitamins are organic substances that optimize blood sugar levels and prevent damage to cell membranes by free radicals. In addition, nutrients reduce the risk of developing concomitant diseases (atherosclerosis, heart ischemia, sexual dysfunction, renal failure, gastroparesis, neuropathy, retinopathy, cataracts, glaucoma), improve the functioning of the immune system, increase visual acuity, strengthen the walls of blood vessels, normalize psycho-emotional background. With the passage of intensive vitamin therapy at the stage of prediabetes (against the background of a low-carbohydrate diet), blood sugar levels will return to normal in 5-6 months.
How diabetes develops
Diabetes mellitus is an endocrine disease accompanied by a persistent increase in sugar levels in blood. This pathology occurs due to insufficient synthesis of the pancreatic hormone - insulin. Interestingly, insulin plays a primary role in carbohydrate metabolism, since it increases the permeability of cells for the penetration of glucose,i.e. its absorption. However, due to many different causes, including persistent hypovitaminosis, lack of water and malnutrition, the functional activity of the pancreas decreases, as well as the ability to utilize glucose. In this case, the cells provide "resistance" to insulin, ignoring the signals of the brain about the "inlet" of sugar into them.
Against the background of disturbances in the interaction of membrane receptors and hormones, type 2 diabetes (insulin-independent) develops. In addition, metabolic disorders accelerate the processes of glucose autoxidation, which leads to the formation of a large number of highly reactive free radicals. Destructive particles "kill" pancreatic cells, since the rate of their synthesis exceeds the reactions of endogenous defense. This process underlies the development of type 1 diabetes (insulin-dependent).
Interestingly, the body of a healthy person maintains a constant balance between the processes of peroxidation of fats and the activity of the endogenous antioxidant system.
What vitamins do diabetics need
In any glucose resistance disorder, it is important to reduce the amount of free radicals in the blood. For this purpose, endocrinologists prescribe antioxidant substances.
Essential nutrients for diabetics
- Vitamin A (retinol). A powerful antioxidant that slows down the destruction of pancreatic tissue, normalizes the immune response, and improves vision. If there is a lack of vitamin A in the body of a diabetic, then the mucous membrane of the eye suffers first of all.
The daily value in retinol is 0.7 – 0.9 milligrams.
- Vitamin E (tocopherol). The strongest "neutralizer" of free radicals, which increases the endogenous defense of the body. In addition, vitamin E is involved in tissue respiration, improves the filtration capacity of the kidneys, optimizes lipid metabolism, prevents the development of vascular atherosclerosis, increases blood flow in the retina, and improves the body's immune status.
It is advisable for diabetics to correct insulin resistance to take 25-30 milligrams of tocopherol per day.
- Vitamin C (L-ascorbate). The main antioxidant factor, immunomodulator and oncoprotector. The nutrient absorbs free radicals, reduces the risk of developing colds, strengthens the walls of blood vessels, increases the body's resistance to hypoxia, and accelerates the production of sex hormones. In addition, ascorbic acid slows down the development of diabetic complications: cataracts, leg lesions, kidney failure.
It is important for patients with diabetes to consume at least 1000 milligrams of L-ascorbate per day.
- Vitamin N (lipoic acid). The main function of the substance is to accelerate the regeneration of nerve fibers that are damaged during insulin resistance. Along with this, the compound stimulates cellular consumption of glucose, protects the pancreatic tissue from destruction, and increases the body's endogenous defenses.
To prevent neuropathy, take 700-900 milligrams of lipoic acid per day.
- Vitamin B1 (thiamine). Regulator of intracellular glucose metabolism, which prevents the development of concomitant pathologies (nephropathy, neuropathy, vascular dysfunction, retinopathy).
It is important for diabetics to consume at least 0.002 milligrams of thiamine per day.
- Vitamin B6 (pyridoxine). Controls protein metabolism, accelerates the production of hemoglobin, improves the psycho-emotional background.
1.5 milligrams of pyridoxine per day is prescribed for the prevention of nervous disorders.
- Vitamin B7 (biotin). It has an insulin-like effect on the human body (reducing the need for the hormone). At the same time, the vitamin accelerates the regeneration of epithelial tissue, stimulates the production of protective antibodies, and participates in the reactions of converting fat into energy (weight loss).
The physiological requirement for biotin is 0.2 milligrams per day.
- Vitamin B11 (L-carnitine). It optimizes carbohydrate-fat metabolism, increases the susceptibility of cells to insulin (due to the burning of low-density lipoproteins), stimulates the production of the "joy" hormone (serotonin), slows down the development of cataracts (the most common diabetic complication).
Patients with diabetes are prescribed at least 1000 milligrams of L-carnitine per day (starting at 300 milligrams, gradually increasing the dose).
- Vitamin B12 (cobalamin). An irreplaceable "participant" in metabolism (carbohydrate, protein, lipid, nucleotide), stimulator of muscle and nervous activity. In addition, the vitamin accelerates the regeneration of damaged integument of the body (including the mucous membrane of the eyes), stimulates the formation of hemoglobin, and prevents the development of neuropathy (non-inflammatory nerve damage).
For patients with diabetes, the daily dose of cobalamin is 0.003 milligrams.
Essential minerals for a diabetic
In addition to vitamins, it is important to consume micronutrients and macronutrients to optimize carbohydrate metabolism.
List of mineral compounds:
- Chromium. An indispensable nutrient for type 2 diabetics, as it suppresses cravings for sweet foods and increases the permeability of cell membranes for glucose.
The physiological requirement for an element is 0.04 milligrams per day.
- Zinc. The most important substance for insulin-dependent patients, which is involved in the formation, accumulation and release of the hormone in the cells of the pancreas. In addition, zinc increases dermal barrier function and immune system activity, and enhances vitamin A absorption.
At least 15 milligrams of zinc per day is required to stabilize blood sugar levels.
- Selenium. An antioxidant that protects the body from oxidative damage by free radicals. Along with this, selenium improves the processes of blood microcirculation, increases resistance to respiratory diseases, stimulates the formation of antibodies and killer cells.
The daily value for diabetics is 0.07 milligrams.
- Manganese. It enhances the hypoglycemic properties of insulin, reduces the intensity of the development of fatty degeneration of the liver, accelerates the synthesis of neurotransmitters (serotonin), and participates in the formation of thyroid hormones.
For insulin resistance, take 2 to 2.5 milligrams per day.
- Magnesium. Reduces tissue resistance to insulin (in combination with B vitamins), normalizes blood pressure, calms the nervous system, reduces premenstrual pain, stabilizes the heart, prevents the development of retinopathy (damage to the retina).
The physiological requirement for the nutrient is 400 milligrams per day.
In addition, the diet of a diabetic (especially type 2) includes the antioxidant coenzyme Q10 (at least 100 milligrams per day).
This substance improves the structure of the pancreas tissue, increases the rate of "burning" fat, stimulates the division of "good" cells. With a lack of a substance in the body, metabolic and oxidative disorders are aggravated.
Given that the diabetic menu is limited to foods with a low glycemic index, it is advisable to use vitamin complexes to meet the body's increased need for nutrients.
Best supplements to reduce insulin resistance:
- Vitamins for Diabetes (NutriCare International, USA). A rich multicomponent composition to eliminate hypovitaminosis against the background of impaired glucose uptake. The preparation contains 14 vitamins (E, A, C, B1, B2, B3, B4, N, B5, B6, H, B9, B12, D3 ), 8 minerals (chromium, manganese, zinc, copper, magnesium, calcium, vanadium, selenium ), 3 herbal extracts (brown algae, calendula, comb mountaineer).
The drug is taken once a day, 1 piece after breakfast.
- "Optimal Nutrients for Diabetics" (Enzymatic Therapy, USA). A powerful antioxidant composition that protects pancreatic cells from damage (due to the stabilization of free radicals). In addition, the drug accelerates the regeneration of the skin, optimizes carbohydrate-fat metabolism, reduces the risk of developing cataracts and coronary diseases. The supplement contains vitamins (B6, H, B9, B12, C, E), minerals (manganese, zinc, magnesium, selenium, copper), plant extracts (bitter melon, gymnema, fenugreek, blueberry), bioflavonoids (citrus).
The drug is consumed once a day, 2 pieces after meals (in the first half of the day).
- Vitamins for Diabetics (Woerwag Pharma, Germany). Food supplement aimed at correcting insulin resistance, preventing vascular and neuropathic complications of the disease. The preparation includes 2 trace elements (chromium and zinc), 11 vitamins (A, C, E, PP, B1, B2, B5, B6, H, B9, B12).
The complex is used once a day, 1 tablet.
Remember, it is better to entrust the choice of a vitamin complex to an endocrinologist. Taking into account the patient's condition, the doctor will select an individual dose and adjust the period of use of the complex.
- Glukosil (Artlife, Russia). A balanced phytocomposition for the stabilization of carbohydrate-fat metabolism (in diabetes mellitus), correction of the initial manifestations of glucose resistance. Active ingredients - vitamins (A, C, D3, N, E, B1, B2, B5, PP, B6, B9, H, B12), trace elements (zinc, chromium, manganese), plant extracts (blueberries, burdock, ginkgo biloba, birch, lingonberry, St. garlic, wheat germ), flavonoids (rutin, quercetin), enzymes (bromelain, papain).
The drug is consumed 2 tablets three times a day.
- “Natural inulin concentrate” (Siberian health, Russia). A biological product based on earthen pear tubers(Jerusalem artichoke), aimed at preventing the development of diabetes mellitus. The main component is the polysaccharide inulin, which, when it enters the digestive tract, is transformed into fructose. Moreover, the absorption of this substance does not require the presence of glucose, which helps to avoid the "energy hunger" of tissues and improve carbohydrate-lipid metabolism.
Before use, 2 grams of the powder mixture is dissolved in 200 milliliters of pure water, stirred vigorously and drunk 30 to 50 minutes before breakfast.
Vitamins for diabetics are substances that normalize blood glucose levels, enhance the body's antioxidant defenses, and prevent the development of concomitant diseases. These compounds increase the patient's immune status, inhibit the development of vascular atherosclerosis, reduce cravings for sweet foods, and improve carbohydrate-fat metabolism.
Key nutrients for diabetics are vitamins (A, C, E, N, B1, B6, H, B11, B12), minerals (chromium, zinc, selenium, manganese, magnesium), coenzyme Q10. Given that low-glycemic nutrition cannot satisfy the body's need for them, complexes for diabetes mellitus are used to optimize carbohydrate metabolism. In addition, to support metabolism, they consume antioxidant products: turmeric, Jerusalem artichoke, ginger, cinnamon, cumin, spirulina.