Vitamins for immunity - organic substances that enhance the protective functions of the body. When stimulating non-specific defense factors, all parts of the immune system are affected. As a result, antibodies are released that neutralize the action of foreign agents (viruses, bacteria, fungi). In addition, nutrients support the "correct" metabolism, help to cope with nervous overload, increase the body's adaptive capabilities, participate in the synthesis of proteins, and prevent cell gene mutations.
years ago, and the first vaccine was developed at the end of the 18th century. In 430 BC, the Greeks discovered that patients who had had smallpox (during an epidemic in Athens) no longer suffered from this disease. In the 20th century, Chinese healers breathed dried scabs from smallpox into the noses of healthy patients with a mild form of the disease as a preventive measure. As a result, the survivors gained immunity to the virus for life. This practice (variolation, inoculation) spread throughout New England and Europe at the beginning of the 18th century.
In 50% of cases, the symptoms of the disease are a manifestation of the fact that the immune system has entered the fight against pathogens that have invaded the epithelial layer of the upper respiratory tract (in the case of the common cold).
Types of vitamins
The full functioning of the immune system directly depends on the concentration of essential substances in the body.
Consider the list of vital nutrients:
- Vitamin A. The strongest antioxidant, antioxidant factor, oncoprotector. The fat-soluble nutrient potentiates the synthesis of protective proteins, prevents the development of cataracts, increases vitality, and eliminates dry skin.
The organic names of the vitamin are beta-carotene, carotenoid, retinol, retinyl, retinal. The synthetic type of substance is indicated by the prefix "acetate", for example, retinol acetate.
The daily requirement for adults is 10 milligrams, for children 5-7 milligrams.
- Vitamin E. Essential element, antioxidant, immunocorrector. The nutrient stimulates the synthesis of sex hormones, dissolves blood clots, tones the walls of blood vessels, neutralizes the effects of ultraviolet radiation, maintains the structure of membranes, participates in the formation of protective proteins, accelerates wound healing, and slows down the formation of mimic wrinkles.
Natural forms of the vitamin - tocopherol, tocotrienol, tocopheryl, trienol. The word "acetate" in the name of the additive indicates the synthetic origin of the substance.
The daily value is 30 milligrams.
- Vitamin C. Broad-spectrum antioxidant, oncoprotector, anti-inflammatory factor. In addition to fighting radicals, vitamin C stimulates the synthesis of phagocytes (cells that destroy bacteria and viruses), removes toxins from the body, potentiates collagen synthesis, participates in the absorption of iron, accelerates wound healing, and stimulates intestinal motility. However, these effects are typical only for organic forms of matter.
Name of natural vitamin C – calcium ascorbate, c ester (formula with rutin), L-ascorbate, L-dehydroascorbate, L-ascorbic acid.
It is important to consume at least 1500 milligrams of vitamin C per day to strengthen the immune system.
- Vitamin P (flavonoids). A group of natural substances with antioxidant activity. Common representatives of vitamin P are quercetin, rutin, hesperidin, catechins, anthocyanins.
The primary role of flavonoids is to strengthen the walls of blood vessels, neutralize free radicals, enhance the pharmacological properties of vitamin C. Along with this, they protect the skin from ultraviolet radiation, prevent the development of inflammation, stimulate adaptive reactions organism, prevent the development of malignant neoplasms.
To prevent autoimmune dysfunction, take at least 50 milligrams of flavonoids per day.
- Vitamin B9 (folic acid). It is necessary for the full functioning of the bone marrow, which produces immunity cells. Along with this, folic acid is involved in the functioning of the endocrine, nervous and genitourinary systems. The daily norm of the substance is 0.4 milligrams.
- Vitamin B12. Organic forms - cobalamin, cyanocobalamin. B12 accelerates the regeneration of blood cells, increases the use of oxygen by tissues, stimulates the synthesis of protective antibodies, and neutralizes toxic substances in the liver.
Daily nutrient requirement is 0.003 milligrams.
- Vitamin B2 (riboflavin). Participates in the synthesis of red blood cells, enhances regeneration processes in tissues, prevents a decrease in the immune status, intensifies the synthesis of proteins, fats, carbohydrates, accelerates the healing of mucous membranes and wounds.
The daily value of the nutrient varies between 1.3 and 2.2 milligrams.
The daily requirement for minerals is:
- chromium - 0.04 milligrams;
- iron -14 milligrams;
- zinc -15 milligrams;
- iodine - 0.15 milligrams;
- selenium - 0.07 milligrams.
What does the desire to use this or that product say
Unfortunately, the human body cannot talk with the owner, but it is able to give help signals to learn to recognize. Often, each of us is faced with a situation where we want spicy, salty, sweet, sour, and we greedily use this or that product every day. Why is this happening? The reason for this phenomenon is a deficiency of vitamins, minerals or nutrients in the body.
What the products say:
- If you want chocolate. Most likely, the body lacks magnesium. To fill the deficiency of the element, enrich the diet with bananas, seeds, nuts, avocados, buckwheat porridge.
More than 75% of the world's population is deficient in magnesium. However, this condition is often asymptomatic, and it is problematic to identify it in the early stages. In a protracted form, it threatens the development of osteoporosis, asthma, type 2 diabetes.
- If you want baked goods. Nitrogen deficiency in the body, which leads to the appearance of edema, the development of severe infections, discoloration of the skin, and a decrease in muscle mass. Bakery products are recommended to be replaced with: legumes, potatoes, nuts, meat, fish.
- If you want herring. Chloride deficiency. Drink goat milk, include seaweed, fish in your daily menu, and season your meals with sea salt.
- If you want fat. The body lacks calcium, which negatively affects the condition of the skeleton and bones. Eat sesame seeds, legumes, broccoli, cheeses, dairy products.
- If you want lemons. Lack of potassium salts, vitamin C. Deficiency of ascorbic acid in the body reduces immunity. To make up for the lack, give preference to citrus fruits ( oranges, grapefruits, tangerines ), blackcurrant, rosehip infusion.
- If you want burnt pies. Not enough carbon. Load up on fresh fruit.
- If you want everything and a lot. Deficiency of tyrosine, tryptophan, silicon. In this case, nuts, sunflower seeds, raisins, cheese, liver, green, yellow, red vegetables, fruits should be present in the daily diet.
Excessive appetite in girls before menstruation indicates a lack of zinc. To replenish the element, eat red meat, root vegetables, seafood, lettuce.
- If you don't want anything. Lack of appetite indicates a lack of thiamine (B1), riboflavin (B2) and manganese in the body. You can fill the deficit with the following products: nuts, seeds, legumes, tuna, beef, turkey, chicken, blueberries.
A constant craving for sour indicates the presence of gastritis with reduced secretion, bitter - intoxication of the body, acute - a violation of lipid metabolism, increased cholesterol, astringent - reduced immunity, unleavened food - a stomach ulcer, duodenal ulcer, the presence of problems with the liver and gall bladder, sweet - disruption of the nervous system.
The role of the immune system is to identify "self" and "foreign" antigens. Therefore, a change in its function (in the direction of increasing or decreasing) is accompanied by the development of pathological conditions (allergies, immunodeficiencies, autoimmune diseases). To prevent such disorders, vitamin complexes (courses) are consumed 2-3 times a year.
- Discovery Charm (Artlife, Russia). A multi-component supplement consisting of two types of complementary tablets. Each capsule contains 3 types of granules, the active elements of which are released in the "correct" sequence. Thus, "Discovery Charm" is a powerful immunomodulatory complex with a prolonged action of substances.
Tablets of the first formula (No. 1) contain vitamins, plant extracts, enzymes, flavonoids, minerals. Pill No. 2 contains macronutrients, vitamins, saponins, chromogenic and polysaccharide complexes.
The drug is used to increase immunity at the stages of rehabilitation after illnesses, including surgical interventions, during chemotherapy courses, and also as a general tonic in the autumn-winter period.
The Discovery complex is taken twice a day: 2 tablets of the first formula after breakfast and 2 tablets of the second after lunch. The duration of admission is 1-2 months (depending on the state of health).
- Immunap Forte (Lec Pharma, USA). Vitamin and mineral preparation, including plant extracts (astragalus, echinacea, shiitake mushroom, licorice root, Chinese magnolia vine), zinc, beta-carotene, pyridoxine, vitamin C.
Phyto-supplement is used to support immunity during the season of viral activity, in the postoperative period, with parasitic invasions, during exacerbation of chronic diseases.
Standard regimen: 1 capsule twice a day (after meals). The duration of therapy is 3 weeks. After 6 months, the course is repeated (if necessary). Contraindications to the use of the complex are pregnancy, breastfeeding, cardiac arrhythmias, hypertension, taking in the evening.
- Bittner Immuno (Richard Bittner, Austria). Multivitamins to increase immunity and saturate the body with essential nutrients. The complex includes lacto- and bifidobacteria, vitamins (B, A, C, E), trace elements (zinc), plant extracts (ginseng and guarana). With regular intake of the supplement, the intestinal microflora is normalized, the healing of wounds on the mucous membranes is accelerated, the absorption of minerals improves, the work of the digestive tract is restored, the processes of energy production are enhanced, and the immune status of the body is increased.
The drug is taken once a day, 1 capsule (in the morning). During pregnancy and lactation, it is better not to use the supplement, since its effect on the fetus has not been studied. In addition, the vitamin mixture is contraindicated in violations of the heart rhythm, nervous excitability, hypertension, insomnia, predisposition to allergies.
- Alphabet “In the season of colds” (Akvilon, Russia). Rich multivitamin complex including 13 vitamins, 9 micro- and macroelements, succinic and lipoic acids. To increase the effectiveness of the composition, the nutrients are divided into 3 groups of tablets (based on the compatibility of substances). At the same time, each category of pills "corresponds" to a certain color: white, yellow or green. Given that Alfavit contains a powerful complex of antioxidant substances, it is used to enhance antiviral immunity, reduce the intensity of inflammatory reactions, accelerate wound regeneration, and increase resistance to infections.
The supplement is taken three times a day, 1 capsule of each type (in any order).
- True Balance (Now Foods, USA). The richest multivitamin complex of organic origin. The supplement contains 14 vitamins, 10 micro and macro elements, amino acid ( L-carnitine ), herbal extract (gymnema sylvestre).
The drug is used in the autumn-winter period to increase immunity, prevent nutrient deficiency, improve the psycho-emotional background, increase vitality, normalize carbohydrate and protein metabolism.
"True Balance" take 1 capsule per day 30 minutes after a meal.
- MultiVit Care (Vitaline, Russia). The composition of the drug includes almost all essential nutrients (with the exception of vitamin A). The additive is used to maintain the nervous, immune, humoral and endocrine systems. Fortifying vitamins take 1 tablet a day after breakfast.
Remember which nutrients are best, the immunologist decides based on health status, time of year, and where you live.
Violation of the body's natural defenses, when it becomes overactive and destroys normal tissues, perceiving them as foreign, is called autoimmune disease (AZ). Today, 5 - 7% of the world's population suffers from this disease, which usually develops at a young age and is most common among women (10 times more often) than men.
The mechanism of development of an autoimmune disease is triggered when antibodies interact with their own antigens, destroying the cells and tissues that contain them. The result is a vicious circle. The more autoantibodies produced, the more damage to normal tissues, which causes increased secretion of internal antigens, which increase the number of autoantibodies. The resulting autoimmune reaction is chronic and usually results in tissue damage over a long period of time.
Examples of AZ: celiac disease, psoriasis, rheumatoid arthritis, Hashimoto's thyroiditis, diffuse toxic goiter, multiple sclerosis, hemolytic anemia, vitiligo. Such diseases are systemic because they affect the whole system or the entire body. At present, the cause of the negative reaction of the immune system to its own tissues has not been identified. At the same time, it is assumed that external (severe infectious diseases, trauma, stress, hypothermia) and internal factors (gene mutations that are inherited) can cause a malfunction in the body.
One of the most common causes of AD is “cross-immunity”, when the infectious agent “adjusts” to the cells of the body, as a result, the immune system neutralizes the microbe, while simultaneously cracking down on its own cells.
If a person becomes worse after taking vitamins, macro- and microelements, amino acids, adaptogens (sea buckthorn, eleutherococcus, ginseng) - this is the first symptom of the development of autoimmune processes in the body. The health, success of treatment and even the life of the patient depends on the timely diagnosis. To diagnose the disease, you need to take a blood test for antibodies, the type of which is determined by the attending physician based on the clinical history.
Vitamins for raising children's immunity
In a child's body, the synthesis of its own immunoglobulins (protective antibodies) begins only by 6-7 years (after the completion of the formation of the immune system). However, during the formation of barrier mechanisms, the child is extremely vulnerable to bacteria and viruses. The main task of parents is to strengthen the immunity of the crumbs, as well as to study the factors that provoke failures.
The main cause of dysfunctions in the “protective” system is a prolonged deficiency of essential substances.
In addition, immune disorders occur against the background of the following factors:
- unbalanced diet;
- taking antibiotics;
- excessive mental or physical exertion;
- no daily routine;
- regular lack of sleep;
- living in an ecologically unfavorable region;
- chronic functional disorders.
The following symptoms indicate a decrease in the body's defenses:
- frequent respiratory infections (5-7 times a year), re-infection with the virus (2 to 3 weeks after recovery);
- enlargement of lymph nodes in the axillary, submandibular, inguinal, clavicular and cervical regions of the body;
- drowsiness, fatigue, irritability;
- diarrhea, bloating, abdominal pain;
- severe rehabilitation after illness;
- decreased concentration;
- hair loss, brittle nails;
- manifestation of allergic reactions (primary).
These symptoms, in 90% of cases, indicate the development of persistent beriberi. To eliminate which (along with a balanced diet) it is advisable to take vitamin complexes.
The most effective drugs for children:
- Jungle (Sagmel, USA). Includes 10 vital vitamins: A, B1, B2, B3, B6, B12, D3, E, C, folic acid. The composition is produced in the form of elastic chewable tablets, made in the form of wild animals. The "Jungle" supplement is given to children (over three years old) in order to prevent beriberi, stimulate the immune system, and improve the psycho-emotional state.
Preschool children (3-6 years old) are prescribed 1 tablet per day (after meals), middle school students (7-12 years old) - 2 tablets, adolescents (12 - 16 years old) - 2 - 3 pills.
The duration of therapy is 1 month. In the autumn-winter period, the course is repeated with an interval of 2 months.
- Discovery Excellent (Artlife, Russia). Multi-component supplement designed for daily support of a growing organism. The composition of the bioactive complex includes 2 types of complementary tablets (yellow and brown). In addition to vitamins, micro- and macroelements, the biocomplex contains plant extracts, organic acids, enzymes, bioflavonoids.
Immunity-boosting pills are taken 2 times a day: 2 pieces of the main formula after breakfast and 2 pieces of the additional one after dinner.
- Kinder Biovital gel (Bayer, Germany). Multivitamins to increase the barrier functions of the developing organism. The drug is released in the form of a thick orange mixture containing a large number of air bubbles. The composition of the baby gel includes B vitamins, beta-carotene, cholecalciferol, tocopherol, ascorbic acid, lecithin. Interestingly, the Biovital supplement is prescribed to correct immunity for both infants (from 1 month old) and adults (pregnant, lactating women).
Standard regimen for taking the gel - newborns up to 3 months - 2 grams once a day, babies from 3 to 12 months - 2 grams 2-3 times a day, children from 1 up to 6 years - 5 grams once a day, schoolchildren and adults - 5 grams 2 times a day.
5 grams of the composition contains 0.15 bread units (information for diabetics).
- VitaMishki Immuno (PharmaMed, Canada). The active components of the composition are sea buckthorn fruit extract, vitamins C, E, trace elements zinc and selenium. The drug has immunostimulating, antioxidant, tonic, anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial effects. The complex is produced in the form of chewable figured lozenges (bears). The supplement is introduced into the daily menu of a child from the age of three.
The daily dose for preschool children (3-7 years old) is 1 piece, for children over 7 years old - 2 lozenges.
- Children's immune-enhancing chewable vitamins (Source Naturals, Wellness, USA). The preparation includes powerful antiviral nutrients: vitamins A, C, extracts of grapefruit, echinacea, elderberry, marshmallow, astragalus, meitake mushroom, citrus bioflavonoids, zinc, beta-glucan, fractionated colostrum. The biocomplex is used in the autumn-winter period for the prevention of respiratory infections, beriberi and autoimmune dysfunctions in children older than 4 years.
Children from 4 to 8 years old are given 1 lozenge twice a day (after meals), middle school students (9-13 years old) - 1 tablet three times a day, adolescents over 14 years old - 1 chewing gum 4 times a day.
- Curly vitamins for children with berry flavor (Now Foods, USA). Organic food supplement containing 15 vitamins, 9 micro and macro elements, 2 carotenoids (lutein and lycopene). The complex is used to support children's immunity in the winter season, prevent asthenic conditions, prevent hypovitaminosis, increase physical and mental activity.
Strengthening lozenges are taken daily, 2 pieces, with meals.
Remember, the decision to take multi-component supplements for children is important to make after consultation with an immunologist.
Given that the immune system protects the body from invading foreign agents, it is important to maintain its performance at a high level. To do this, you need to fully eat, monitor the condition of the intestines, regularly take vitamin complexes. This recommendation is especially relevant for children, pregnant and lactating women, the elderly, families living in an ecologically unfavorable zone. However, it is necessary to use immunomodulatory therapy correctly, based on the characteristics of your body.
Before buying a multivitamin, first of all, study the ingredient list. This will help identify good complexes among a wide range of drugs.
If there is persistent hypovitaminosis, the choice of an immunomodulatory complex is best left to the doctor (to avoid overdose).
Remember, the protective functions of the body are reduced due to lack of sleep. Even a single sleepless night can harm the immune system by reducing the number of natural killer cells. In addition, to enhance the barrier properties of the body, monitor the intestinal microflora. According to clinical studies, it has been revealed that beneficial bacteria not only improve the condition of the digestive tract, but also produce vitamins K, B, helping the immune system cope with pathogenic microbes and maintain the health of the whole organism at a high level.